Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland Page: 33
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policies pertaining to natural resource use and management. Human population processes on the
socio-economic side of the framework include birth, migration, aging and morbidity. Other
elements occurring on the right side of the framework include cultural resources, education,
governance structures, markets, legal system, social interaction and family. These processes
determine the organization of society. Taken together, economic and social processes act on
existing conditions and result in Social Capacity & Economic Capital and Current Human
Condition in the next time period (Maczko and Hidinger, 2008).
Economic dividends of ecosystem services are a subset of social dividends. The two are
necessarily linked. These economic dividends are merely particular outcomes of ecosystem
functions that are used to result in specific interactions and transactions in an economy (Maczko
and Hidinger, 2008). When the resulting transactions or interactions occur at levels capable of
economically supporting a given purpose, the purpose is economically viable.
Economic viability is affected by many external forces. Drought is a natural force that,
almost without exception, has negative economic repercussions relative to grazing pressure (Hart
et al., 1988; Valentine, 1990; Conner, 1991). Costs such as fossil fuel prices and land prices
have effects on economic viability for rangeland management (Heidschmidt et al., 2004). The
same is true for prices of goods produced, which are predominantly driven by supply and
Maslow (1954) argues that there is a hierarchy of psychological needs common to all
humans. In his conceptual model, biological survival is the most basic goal and spiritual
tranquility the most advanced goal. He theorizes attainment of higher goals is only attempted
after the more basic goals have been met. In highly developed societies with sophisticated
institutions and technologies, man's biological survival becomes more certain and its place as his
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Becker, Wayne. Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland, dissertation, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103289/m1/44/: accessed December 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .