Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland Page: 25
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the area again before the forage has matured too much; (6) Flexible stocking to match forage
availability and animal numbers in wet and dry years or having a buffer areas that can be grazed;
(7) Using fire and other tools to manage livestock distribution and increase the total plants
harvested; and (8) Using multiple livestock species.
Specialized grazing systems usually lead to improved livestock management. With these
systems, concentration and handling of animals by the manager is increased. The results can be
better health, better breeding and better supplemental feeding programs and notably tamer
animals. Pastures receiving rest are available for burning, seeding and other management
practices (Holechek, 1989).
Livestock Management Strategies.: Summary
Grazing systems are management tools designed to balance the conflicting relationships
between energy capture, harvest, and conversion efficiencies. They are designed firstly to
enhance livestock production over time by either improving and/or stabilizing the quantity and/or
quality of forage produced and/or consumed. Production improves if the benefits of rest or
deferment exceed the detrimental impacts of grazing. Stabilization results if the benefits of rest
exactly equal the detrimental impacts of grazing. Degradation results when the benefits of rest
are less than the detrimental impacts of grazing (Heidschmidt and Taylor, 1991).
For communities to move from one stable state to another, some external force is
required. Management should be aware of which stable state or states have the greatest chance
of fulfilling objectives and what combination of events is required to cause or prevent success
(Westoby et al., 1989; Danckwerts et al., 1993). Forage type and climate appear to be factors
that determine system productivity advantages. Especially in more humid areas (> 500mm
precipitation), and on seeded rangelands, short duration grazing appears to have a productivity
advantage (Daugherty et al., 1982; Heitschmidt et al., 1982; Sharrow, 1983; Jung et al., 1985).
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Becker, Wayne. Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland, dissertation, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103289/m1/36/: accessed April 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .