Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland Page: 23
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similar or higher to comparisons of season long grazing or rotational grazing with shorter
recovery periods. (Smith 1895; Sampson, 1913; Rogler, 1951; Scott, 1953; Matthews, 1954;
Merrill, 1954; Hormay, 1956; Hormay and Evanko, 1958; Hormay and Talbot, 1961; Hormay,
1970; Reardon and Merrill, 1976; Booysen and Tainton, 1978; Taylor et al., 1980; Thurow et al.,
1988; Taylor et al., 1993; Tainton et al., 1999; Snyman, 1998; Teague et al., 2004; Muiller et al.,
2007). This is possible if adequate water and nutrients are available (Lee and Bazzaz, 1980;
Wallace et al., 1984; Coughenour et al., 1985; Polley and Detling, 1989). More arid rangelands
require longer recovery periods (Heitschmidt and Taylor, 1991). Additionally, Warren et al.
(1986) noted at a heavy stocking rate, water infiltration into the soil was much higher in an
intensively run, multi-paddock rotational grazing system than in a continuously grazed treatment
at the same stocking rate.
Rangeland provided with a long rest period or low grazing pressure decreases in forage
quality because of increased plant maturity. McNaughton (1979) compared grazed to non-
grazed rangeland. When adequate nutrients and moisture are available, multi-paddock grazing
managed at optimal grazing intensity, increased primary production. Grazing intensities greater
than optimal will decrease primary productivity. Evidence supports the grazing optimization
hypothesis at both the plant and community level (Belskyl 986; Milchunas and Lauenroth,,
1993). The grazing pattern required to increase primary production mimics migratory herbivores
because there is a period of intensive grazing, followed by a long period of little or no grazing
(Frank and McNaughton, 1993). To maximize plant regrowth with intensive grazing systems,
plants must have access to adequate moisture, nutrients, and recovery time. Continuous grazing
does not allow for recovery on heavily grazed patches (Teague and Dowhower, 2003).
Grazing distribution is more even under intensive than extensive management. This depends on
how well the aspects of timing and frequency of grazing are managed. (Barnes et al., 2008),
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Becker, Wayne. Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland, dissertation, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103289/m1/34/: accessed May 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .