Integrating Selective Herbicide and Native Plant Restoration to Control Alternanthera philoxeroides (Alligator Weed) Page: 2
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cultural methods. Examples include practices that interfere with pest lifecycles, such as crop
rotation or tillage (Meissle et al. 2011). Increasingly, crops are being grown with genetic
enhancements, such as introduction of genetic material from the natural insecticide producing
bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Meissle et al. 2011).
IPM management programs uniquely tuned for weeds have grown as attention to weed
biology and ecology has increased (Appleby 2005). As with insect pests, IPM for weeds attempts
to improve control without solely relying on chemical herbicides. Agricultural examples of
cultural IPM practices for weeds include; using alternative cultivars, adjusting fertilizer rates,
crop rotations, and smothering of weeds through the use of "cover crops" (Valenti and Wicks
1992, Wyse 1994). As with insect pest, biological control of weeds is possible. Introducing
herbivory from exotic insects or bolstered native populations are common tools (Cofrancesco
Integrated management techniques for aquatic weeds do exist, but integration of
available tools is less intensely researched then their terrestrial counterparts. Aquatic herbicides
are available for chemical control of aquatic weeds, but have a special set of problems associated
with them. Available herbicides are limited because, due to the sensitive nature of aquatic
habitats, many terrestrial herbicides cannot clear regulatory hurdles to cross over into aquatics.
Herbicides that can be used are often limited by application restrictions. Applications of aquatic
herbicides can result in dissolved oxygen crashes and subsequent fish and invertebrate mortality
if too much vegetation is eliminated at once. Control of invasive aquatic weeds with traditional
herbicide applications can lead to further invasions and impede progress if native plant
community restoration is the intended goal. Herbicides can create a disturbance that may rapidly
fill with new invasive species or be re-invaded by the original target weed if high efficacy is not
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Adams, Justin. Integrating Selective Herbicide and Native Plant Restoration to Control Alternanthera philoxeroides (Alligator Weed), thesis, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103280/m1/9/: accessed February 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .