Integrating Selective Herbicide and Native Plant Restoration to Control Alternanthera philoxeroides (Alligator Weed) Page: 3
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achieved (Morrison 2002, Ogden and Rejmanek 2005). Development of new IPM strategies for
aquatic weeds that replace, reduce, or improve effectiveness of herbicides is of particular
importance due to a federal regulatory environment that may soon favor tighter controls on
aquatic herbicide application practices (Nat'1 Cotton Council v. EPA, 553 F.3d 927 6th Cir.
Biological and cultural control options for aquatics do exist. Well known insect
biocontrol agents for invasive aquatics include the giant salvinia weevil (Flores and Carlson
2006), alligator weed flea-beetle (Sainty et al. 1998) and waterhyacinth weevils (Haag and
Habeck 1991). Fish as well as insects are used in aquatics plant management. Examples include
introduction of tilapia for giant salvinia control (McIntosh et al. 2008), and triploid grass carp for
hydrilla control (Cuda et al 2008). Current cultural methods for aquatic weed control involve
watershed level techniques to reduce nutrient loads and improve water quality. Examples include
wetland reestablishment, installation of vegetated buffer strips between agricultural and
drainages, phosphate free detergents, and efficient agricultural fertilizer plans (Jeppesen et al.
1999). Reservoir level cultural techniques include temporary manipulation of water level to
suppress vegetation (Poovey and Kay 1998), or reduction of available light through aquatic dyes
or floating shade mats (Schooler 2008). Manipulating the availability of the resources required
for weed growth at the reservoir level is a possible management tool uniquely tuned for weeds
(Buhler et al. 2000). The availability of necessary resources to any particular plant is often
limited by competition for the same resources from another plant (Harris 1967). Re-introduction
of native plants to compete with aquatic weeds is a possible management tool, and has been
explored with some success in terrestrial applications. In a prairie restoration project, Bakker and
Wilson (2004) found that plots restored with native grasses reduced invasion of A. cristatum by
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Adams, Justin. Integrating Selective Herbicide and Native Plant Restoration to Control Alternanthera philoxeroides (Alligator Weed), thesis, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103280/m1/10/: accessed February 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .