Absorbed dose to selected internal organs from typical diagnostic exposures Page: 2 of 8
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described mathematically, can be operated on by the computer to produce
the desired results.
A Monte-Carlo-type computer program has been developed at the Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, which can be used to estimate dose due to
external photon beams typical of those employed in x-ray diagnosis.
Description of the Study
Two diagnostic x-ray procedures were simulated on a computer for
these studies. Eight computer runs consisted of a set of exposures
each of which simulated a chest x-ray and eight runs consisted of a
set of exposures each of which simulated a G. I. x-ray.
The targets for these studies are two anthropomorphic phantoms.
One is that of an adult human body and some of its internality. It
has been variously described1,2,3,4,5 and in its present form represents
a worthwhile target for these studies. It contains 23 internal organs
including gonads, lungs, and four parts of the G.I. tract; it has ten
skeletal parts with provisions for red and yellow marrows; and-there
is skin and there is tissue which includes muscle. The bone marrow
and the bone are mixed homogeneously in the skeleton of this phantom.
The other phantom is called a geometric phantom. Whereas, in
toto, it has the same outer dimensions and the same mass and composition
of the human phantom, it is divided into dose regions by cutting planes
and curves. For example, the trunk of the phantom has five layers, is
divided into five concentric cylinders, and is cut by four vertical cross
planes. This results in 85 subregions in which depth dose may be
Both phantoms are heterogeneous by virtue of their composition
which consists of 3 distinct media: tissue, lung, and bone with their
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Poston, J. W. & Warner, G. G. Absorbed dose to selected internal organs from typical diagnostic exposures, article, January 1, 1973; Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1029192/m1/2/: accessed March 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.