Analog and digital simulation of the radocardiogram Page: 1 of 25
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ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIMULATION OF THE RADIOCARDIOGRAM
Howard G. Parker, Donald C. Van Dyke,
Frank T. Upham and Alfred A. Windsor
Donner Laboratory of Medical Physics
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory,
University of California, Berkeley
A mathematical model of the radiocardiogram has been developed to deal with the pulsatile
component of the tracing. It is applicable to the bedside radiocardiogram, radionuclide angio.
cardiographic studies with the scintillation camera, or description of other tracer studies in the
central circulation. The model consists of four heart chambers, each ejecting a fixed fraction of
its contained tracer with each systole, and a lung delay function.
Discrete-variable calculation of end-systolic and end-diastolic tracer content of the heart
chambers and lung allowed development of simple, rapid programs for simulation by small digital
computers. By this means, curve fitting and estimation of ejection fractions, end-diastolic
volumes and mean lung delay may eventually be automated. A better understanding of the
problems of extracting diagnostically useful information from such a multiparameter fit should
result from study of these simulations.
Families of characteristic curves were generated for several disorders where pattern recogni-
tion as well as parameter estimation is important.
A small, light weight, portable electronic analog simulator has been developed to permit the
same simulation and trial-and-error parameter estimation at the bedside. It puts a real-time trac-
ing onto the chart recorder used for actual radiocardiograms. Its design features are described.
Some ideas unifying analog and digital modeling are expressed in differential equations.
They provide a framework for future simulation of the radiocardiogram in the irregularly beating
heart and an algorithm for potential extraction of detailed chamber-volume curves from the
nonequilibrium portion of the radiocardiogram.
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Parker, H.G.; Van Dyke, D.C.; Upham, F.T. & Windsor, A.A. Analog and digital simulation of the radocardiogram, article, June 1, 1974; Berkeley, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1026005/m1/1/: accessed March 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.