A history of Verona, by A. M. Allen. Edited by Edward Armstrong, with twenty illustrations and three maps. Page: 60 of 493
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42 A HISTORY OF VERONA
clause embodying the first example of an extradition treaty
between Verona and another city. It was decreed that all
criminals and debtors taking refuge in the territory of the other
state, and all fugitive slaves, were, on demand of their own
government, to be arrested and handed over to the authorities
of their native city.
In I I9 the Veronese made a commercial treaty with their
nearest neighbours on the south-west, the Mantuans.' The two
cities swore to help'one another in every possible way, especially
if either should be at war with the Ferrarese. The citizens of
either state were to be free to attend the annual fairs of the
other without paying any tolls or imposts. The Veronese
pledged themselves not to trade in salt on the Po above Mantua.
A road was to be kept open and safe for traffic between the
two cities, each of which was to be responsible for the part in
its territory. In addition a waterway between the two cities
was to be kept open. This was to go down the Adige and one
of its branches, called the Adigetto, as far as Salvaterra, then by
canal to the Tartaro, and so down that stream and up the Po
It may confidently be assumed that these treaties with
Venice and Mantua were not isolated occurrences, but that the
Veronese made similar arrangements with most of the other
Lombard Communes. The normal relation between the Italian
city-states at this period was one of passive hostility, that is, two
cities were not regarded as being at peace with each other, unless
the fact was definitely expressed in some way. This accounts for
the great number of treaties, societies, concords, leagues, pacts,
and other forms of alliance which date from the latter part of
the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth. The
Lombard League, which had earlier included most of the North
Italian cities, lost its universal character after the Treaty of
Constance in 1183, and in its room a host of minor confederacies
sprang up. The Veronese, though still nominally belonging to
the Lombard League, had gradually ceased to take any active
part in it, and towards the turn of the century joined several
smaller confederacies. In April, 1198, they allied themselves
1 Printed by C. Cipolla, N. A. V., vol. xv. p. 302.
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Allen, A. M. A history of Verona, by A. M. Allen. Edited by Edward Armstrong, with twenty illustrations and three maps., book, 1910; New York. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1025/m1/60/: accessed October 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .