A history of Verona, by A. M. Allen. Edited by Edward Armstrong, with twenty illustrations and three maps. Page: 42 of 493
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THE SELF-GOVERNING COMMUNE 25
unwieldy assembly delegated part of its authority to less
numerous bodies, and part to individual magistrates. The first
occasion on record when Verona acted-as an independent state
was the conclusion of a treaty with Venice in i 107, when various
disputed questions as to commerce and tolls were settled, and
the Veronese pledged themselves to aid the Venetians in a war
against Padua, Treviso and Ravenna. In this document, which
the Doge of Venice signed for his city, the Veronese were not
represented by any officials, Imperial or local, but a certain
number of private citizens swore, in the name of all the rest,
to keep the treaty.1 It is not till 1136, nearly thirty years
later, that the names of local officials appear for the first time
in a public document. Then three men, Eleazaro, Odone and
Corrado, are styled Consuls of Verona. Another document
of 1140 makes mention of seven Consuls.3 The Consuls were
the first judicial and executive officials thrown up by the evolution
of local government in the North Italian cities. Their
number and method of appointment varied from place to place,
but their term of office seems always to have been quite short,
and their functions everywhere identical. The earliest recorded
instance of the appointment of Consuls is at Biandrate in 1093.
In some cities they were chosen by the bishop, but by the
middle of the twelfth century most cities elected their own
Consuls, and this was doubtless the case at Verona, where the
bishops had never possessed any temporal power. It will be
remembered that at the diet of Roncalia in 158 the Emperor
Frederic established his claim to appoint the Consuls, but that
in 1177 the cities regained the right to elect their own officials.
Before this, however, it had been found that there were great
difficulties attending the administration of affairs by several
individuals all possessing equal powers, and there was a general
movement throughout the North Italian cities in the second
half of the twelfth century to concentrate the supreme authority,
judicial and executive, in the hands of an official. In 1151
Bologna, Siena, and Ferrara all placed a single individual at
1 The original document has been printed by C. Cipolla, N. A. V., vol. xv.
2 C. Cipolla, Verona, p. 93.
8 Printed at the beginning of the Liber Juris Civilis Vronac, p. xvi.
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Allen, A. M. A history of Verona, by A. M. Allen. Edited by Edward Armstrong, with twenty illustrations and three maps., book, 1910; New York. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1025/m1/42/: accessed February 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .