PRINCIPLES OF SOLUTION HARDENING. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 Page: 5 of 80
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Since ancient times, metals have been alloyed to improve their strength. It
was not until well after the turn of the 20th century, however, that reasonable
theories of solution hardening were advanced, :Rosenhain(,2) in the early twenties
discussed the properties of solid solution alloys and proposed that the presence
of solute atoms "- - - roughens the slip planes", thus causing hardening.
The properties of many solid solutions have been investigated for both single
and polycrystalline materials, and the general effects of alloying are well
known0 These are summarized briefly below:
to Solid solutions are invariably stronger than the pure parent metals0
2. The yield strength always increases with increasing amounts of an alloy=
3, At large strains, the slope of the stress-strain curve is usually, but
not always, increased when solute atoms are added to a metal,
h0 In dilute ternary alloys, each element seems to contribute the same
increment of strength that it did in the binary alloy0
A few examples will serve to illustrate the general changes in properties
brought about by the addition of a solute element0 Fig, 1 shows the results
obtained by Sachs and Weerts for single crystals of silver-gold alloys0 These
two elements are mutually soluble over the entire range of composition, and so the
effect of composition on the critical stress for slip can be clearly seen0 The
maximum effect occurs at 50 atomic per cent, arid the curve falls in a parabolic
manner to minima at the zero per cent alloy points0 For dilute alloys, the
strengthening effect of solute elements is nearly linear with compositions and
is generally so treated. 0 In some alloy systems, the critical stress for slip
in single crystals is markedly affected by small amounts of the added element0
Fig. 2, taken from the work of Greenland , shows the effect of small amounts
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Parker, E.R. & Hazlett, T.H. PRINCIPLES OF SOLUTION HARDENING. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12, report, October 1, 1953; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1024439/m1/5/: accessed March 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.