Analysis of three years of complete-field temperature data from different sites of heated surface discharges into Lake Michigan Page: 5 of 58
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goal is to provide data on plume characteristics that may be used to verify
mathematical models for thermal plumes.
The paucity of prototype data for surface thermal discharges has often
boen documented. ,  This lack of data on thermal-plume behavior
fostered the development of numerous mathematical models, each attempting
to predict thermal-plume dispersion from shoreline canal discharges. To
date, however, none of those models has been sufficiently verified with
prototype data to allow them to be used comfortably in a predictive sense.
With a more complete library of plume data at hand, plume models can be
further verified. More importantly, our increased understanding of plume
physics will allow improved models to be developed. Model assumptions may
be checked and improved by analysis of the experimental data. Also, the
data will indicate which of the observed characteristics of thermal plumes
may be predicted by present-day deterministic models. The significance of
the data and analysis given below transcends shoreline surface discharges:
plumes from submerged discharges eventually reach the surface and disperse
by the same mechanisms as surface plumes under like environmental conditions.
To date, the majority of analytical models for surface thermal plumes
have been verified using only hydraulic scale model data or sparse field
data. Most of the available data on surface thermal plumes has been ac-
quired in hydraulic-model studies. Nearly all of this data are from un-
distorted models of the near-field region of the plume. Such physical
models are flexible and allow numerous tests to be made, each test varying
important plume parameters. In this way, various physical phenomena in-
volving plume dispersion may be studied under laboratory-controlled con-
ditions. This provides a definite advantage in any basic study of thermal
plume dispersion. These undistorted hydraulic models, however, cannot
adequately simulate far-field phenomena such as surface-heat loss, inter-
facial friction, ambient turbulence, and wind and wave effects. These
phenomena become important in regions of the plume where jet momentum has
essentially dissipated. The impossibility of simultaneously satisfying all
the appropriate model-scaling parameters in either an undistorted or dis-
torted model leads to only a partial picture of the plume.
Most of the prototype field data available in the literature are
sketchy in that the data are not sufficiently refined to extract the major
plume characteristics. breover, in much of the data, not all the import-
ant plume parameters were measured. Only recently have some large efforts
been undertaken other than by Argonne National Laboratory, attempting to
provide more complete sets of data. Noteworthy is the data collected at the
Lakeview Generating Station on Lake Ontario,  the Pilgrim Plant in Mass-
achusetts on Cape Cod Bay,  and the Surry Plant on the James River. 
As long as the value of a mathematical model remains determined by how well
it predicts results in the field, thorough monitoring programs will be re-
quired to obtain a large body of data under a wide range of conditions to
fully and fairly evaluate and improve these models.
2. THE PLANT SITES AND DATA ACQUISITION
Three-dimensional temperature data were taken , ,  at four
sites of heated surface discharges on Lake Michigan during the 1971, 1972,
and 1973 field years. Chosen were the Point Beach, Waukegan, and State Line
sites on the western or-5outhwestern shore of the Lake, and the Palisades
site on the eastern shore. Figure 1 sketches the outfall and shoreline con-
figuration of these plants. Table I (appearing with Fig. 4) summarizes the
basic characteristics of the outfalls and their warm-water discharges. The
Point Beach Plant has two identical units with condenser cooling water dis-
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Kyser, J.M.; Paddock, R.A. & Policastro, A.J. Analysis of three years of complete-field temperature data from different sites of heated surface discharges into Lake Michigan, article, January 1, 1974; Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1023368/m1/5/: accessed March 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.