Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Page: 356
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JAX & ROZZI
Protected areas in the southernmost Administrative Region of Chile, Magallanes. For each category
the total numbers (N) and total area in Chile are given in parenthesis. The extreme right column
calculates the percentage that each Magellanic protected area represents relative
to the entire country
Areas protegidas en la Regi6n Administrativa mis austral de Chile: Magallanes. Para cada categoria de irea protegida se
indican en parentesis el numero total (N) y el area total en Chile. La columna al extremo derecho calcula el porcentaje que
representa la superficie de cada irea protegida de Magallanes respecto al area total protegida en el pais
Category Name Province Area Percentage relative
(ha) to total protected
area in Chile (%)
Bernardo O'Higgins Ultima Esperanza *2,962,420 33.2
National Park Torres del Paine Ultima Esperanza 242,242 2.7
(total in Chile: Pali Aike Magallanes 5,030 0.1
N = 32; Cabo de Hornos Antirtica 63,093 0.7
8,912,724 ha) Alberto d Agostini Antirtica 1,460,000 16.4
Subtotal 4,732,785 53.1
Alacalufes Ultima Esperanza 2,313,875 42.0
Reserve Laguna Parrillar Magallanes 18,814 0.3
(Total in Chile: Magallanes Magallanes 13,500 0.2
N = 47; Subtotal 2,346,189 42.6
Cueva del Milod6n Ultima Esperanza 189 1.1
National Los Pingiiinos Magallanes 97 0.5
Monument Laguna de los Cisnes Tierra del Fuego 25 0.1
(Total in Chile: Subtotal 311 1.8
N = 13; 17,669 ha)
Total Magallanes 7,079,285 49.0
Total Chile 14,433,892 100.0
* This figure corresponds to the area of the National Park Bernardo O'Higgins included in the Region of Magallanes.
The total area of this national park is 3525901 ha, but 563481 ha are included in the Region of Aysen, north of Magallanes
(data from Mufioz et al. 1996)
permanently in Magallanes. This yields a mean of
one park-ranger per 3,540 km2. This is a common
problem in Latin America, where a dramatic
situation also occurs in the Brazilian Amazon,
which has only 23 permanent park rangers for the
whole basin, i.e., an average of one park ranger
per 6,053 km2 of protected land (Primack et al.
2001). This situation contrasts with the United
States, which has 4,002 permanent park rangers,
that is an average of one park ranger per 82 km2.
The majority of protected areas in Magallanes
also lack proper infrastructure, such as navigation
media that are indispensable in this archipelago
region. This lack of transport and personnel
determines that not a single park-ranger works in
the diverse habitats included in the 1,460,000 ha
of the National Park de Agostini - the second
largest of Chile. Therefore, most protected land in
Magallanes, as is the case in other regions of
Latin America, would fall within the label of
"paper parks" (Rozzi & Silander unpublished
results). In fact, Magellanic national parks do not
fulfill the requirements and the criteria of IUCN
(1994) for this category of protected areas.
A third problem in the Magellanic region
arises from the almost complete disregard for
local people living close to protected areas, and in
some cases indigenous residents have been
displaced from their land (Rozzi et al. 2000,
Rozzi 2002). The United States preservationist
paradigm, sketched above, has had a strong
influence on the conservation approach in the
extreme south of Chile. The debate about the
influence that pre-Columbian cultures had on
their local ecosystems and regional landscapes,
and the integration of indigenous people into
conservation areas is as intense and controversial
in South-America as in North America. This
discussion involves two extreme positions: (1)
one that idealizes aboriginal people as living in
harmony with nature; and (2) another that
considers native people as threats that should be
removed from "pristine" or "natural" landscapes.
Both are misleading oversimplifications (Alcorn
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Jax, Kurt, 1958- & Rozzi, Ricardo, 1960-. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile, article, 2004; [Santiago, Chile]. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc102284/m1/8/: accessed March 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.