Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Page: 355
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ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND CONSERVATION
becomes even less relevant. Several concepts
have been developed aimed at reconciling
conservation and human needs, which propose
the design of protected areas including
different zones subject to different intensity
and type of human use. Hence, different
conservation concepts - such as those of the
contrasting German and United States
traditions - would apply to different zones of
a protected area.
The zoning criterion is an essential
component of the Biosphere Reserve concept
launched by UNESCO through its Man and
Biosphere (MAB) program in the 1970s. Each
biosphere reserve includes three distinct zones:
(1) core zone, strictly dedicated to protect
"wilderness," which involves complete
exclusion of human activities (except regulated
scientific research); (2) surrounding buffer
areas, which are defined to permit or even
foster traditional forms of land use which, in
turn, may be essential to conserve the culturally
founded diversity of habitats and species
associated with those traditional practices; (3)
transition areas, where productive and other
economic activities and infrastructure are
permitted (Jardin & Kares 2000).
In southern South America, zoning criteria
have been implemented as a mean to reduce
user conflicts by the Argentinean
administration of national parks in Patagonia
(Martin & Cheh6bar 2001, Salguero 2001).
Each Argentinean national park includes five
zones: (1) strict conservation areas, where
human activity (except for scientific research)
is forbidden; (2) extensive public use zones,
where extensive uses such as scientific,
educational, tourist and recreational are
permitted; (3) intensive public use zones,
which are relatively small areas where
intensive tourism and recreation is allowed,
including associated service infrastructure such
as hotels, lodges, restaurants, camping
facilities; (4) natural resource use zones, where
sustainable productive activities and indigenous
people residence are allowed; (5) special use
areas, which are small areas for administration,
services or human settlement not related to
Strategies based on zoning criteria can
provide a valuable bridge between opposite
notions associated with the wilderness United
States or the cultural landscape German
conservation traditions. The zoning approach
seems to us particularly suited for regions, such
as southern South America, which maintain
heterogeneous mosaics of landscapes regarding
the degree of human influence. The extreme
south of Chile, for example, includes a broad
diversity of ecosystems that range from pristine
(i.e., wild) to completely man-modified (i.e.,
cultural) landscapes (Rozzi 2002).
CONSERVATION AND PROTECTED AREAS IN
Only four years after the creation of
Yellowstone National Park in United States, the
first Latin American protected area was
established in Mexico. The creation of the
Mexican Reserva Forestal Desierto de los
Leones, was followed by the Reserva Perito
Moreno in Argentina (1903), and the Reserva
Forestal Malleco in Chile (1907) (Ormazibal
1988). Since then the number of national parks,
state and private reserves has significantly
increased in Chile (Armesto et al. 2001) and
throughout Latin America (Primack et al.
2001). Today, the Chilean state maintains 92
protected areas, which includes 32 national
parks, 47 reserves, and 13 national monuments
(Table 2). The area protected by these 92 units
represents 19 % of the Chilean land surface,
which almost triplicates the mean of 6.4 % for
South American countries (Armesto & Smith-
Among Chilean administrative regions,
Magallanes exhibits an outstanding 7,079,285 ha
of protected land, which represents more than 50
% of the region. National parks cover 4,732,785
ha, which represent 53 % of the total area
devoted to public national parks in Chile.
Magellanic reserves comprise 2,346,189 ha, i.e.,
42.6 % of the area of reserves in the entire
country. Therefore, Magallanes has the highest
rank of protection in Chile, concentrating nearly
50 % of the country's protected land. At the
same time, such large amount of protected land
emphasizes the importance of the Magellanic
region as a reservoir of non-fragmented
temperate ecosystems for Chile and the world.
In spite of the large proportion of protected
land, current figures and conservation
approaches in Magallanes present several
problems. First, the country's distribution of
protected areas is very biased toward the
extreme south (Armesto et al. 1998).
Administrative regions Eleventh (Aysin) and
Twelfth (Magallanes), which extend between
440 and 560 S, include more than 80 % of the
Chilean protected land. Hence, large protected
areas in Magallanes should not hide the lack of
protection in other critical regions of Chile.
A second problem arises from the scarcity of
park personnel: less than 20 park rangers work
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Jax, Kurt, 1958- & Rozzi, Ricardo, 1960-. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile, article, 2004; [Santiago, Chile]. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc102284/m1/7/: accessed March 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.