Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Page: 352

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F - r -
-- ----'-
Fig. 1: The Drachenfels hills at the banks of the river Rhine, south of Bonn, Germany.
The remains of the quarry that endangered the hill and the castle in the early 19th century
can still be seen. (Photo: Kurt Jax, early 2001).
Las colinas de Drachenfels en las riberas del rio Rin al sur de Bonn, Alemania. Los remanentes de las
canteras que amenazaron a la colina y al castillo a comienzos del siglo XIX. (Fotografia de K Jax, a
comienzos del 2001).

An additional emphasis of early
conservation in Germany was the protection of
natural resources, e.g., birds (but only "useful"
birds; see Berlepsch 1899) or game (Rozzi et
al. 2001). Human beings were not excluded
from conservation but, as major agents of the
development of the rural landscapes, they were
included in the idea of "Heimatschutz",
however only as far as they dwelled in
traditional, non-industrial lifestyles.
In contrast to the German model of
"Heimatschutz", conservation efforts in the
United States emphasized the protection of
"wild", "untouched" landscapes, pursuing the
"wilderness" ideal of Henry David Thoreau and
John Muir (Nash 1982, Oelschlaeger 1991).
The first park in the United States (state park at
that time) was the Yosemite Valley in the
Sierra Nevada of California, established in
1864 by the state of California. Later in 1890,
Yosemite was declared a national park (Runte
The first national park in the United States
was established in 1872, namely Yellowstone
National Park, which also constitutes the first
national park of the world. Moreover,
Yellowstone can be considered the prototype

of all national parks and has shaped this
notion (Runte 1997, Sellars 1997). The area is
situated in the northern Rocky Mountains of
the United States, mostly in the state of
Wyoming, and covers an area of almost 9,000
km2. It protected the wild landscape, which
was perceived as not used and altered by
humans. The main features which led to the
establishment of this park were its magnificent
landscapes, including many geothermal
features - geysers and hot springs - and
abundant wildlife, including attractive large
mammals, such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos)
and elk (Cervus elaphus) (Fig. 2A and 2B).
Following the idea of wild landscapes,
humans were explicitly excluded or at least
considered irrelevant for the current appearance
of the protected landscapes. This does not,
however, imply that national parks were meant
to exclude human visitors. The founding law of
Yellowstone stated explicitly that the Park was
created "for the benefit and enjoyment of the
people." Until today the criteria of the
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources (IUCN 1994) for the
establishment of national parks explicitly
require restricted public access. Besides


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Jax, Kurt, 1958- & Rozzi, Ricardo, 1960-. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile, article, 2004; [Santiago, Chile]. ( accessed April 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library,; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.

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