Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Page: 362
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JAX & ROZZI
Fig. 5: Representation of different definitions of "ecosystem" that are applied in ecosystem mana-
gement strategies (see text).
Representaci6n de diversas definiciones de "ecosistema" utilizadas en las aproximaciones de manejo de ecosistemas (vease
Sphere "B" (Fig. 5) depicts another
frequently applied definition of ecosystem,
which focuses on particular interactions and
processes. Here, the ecosystem is described by
particular functional compartments, interacting
in a manner that particular services -such as
primary production, clean air or waters- are
provided by the system. Component resolution
is thus slightly higher than in type A, but still
particular species are not of interest, only
functional types. The degree of interaction is
higher than in many other definitions because
interactions, and particular feedbacks, between
specific functional elements are essential for
the definition. This kind of definition is
sufficient when the aim of ecosystem
management is to provide benefits for humans
in the form of "ecosystem services" (Costanza
et al. 1997).
Sphere "C" (Fig. 5) depicts a third type of
ecosystem definition that demands a higher
resolution in the three axes. For example, a
Nothofagus forest ecosystem or a Sphagnum
bog and the essential interactions that
perpetuate such systems are to be protected.
The aim is to protect a large ecosystem which
is "typical" for the area, without the necessity
that all constituent species have to be preserved
in the long run, except for some conspicuous
and dominant taxa such as Nothofagus trees
and Sphagnum mosses. Particular types of taxa
(indicator species, keystone species or
"umbrella species"; see Simberloff 1998) are
thus already part of the definition. This -
physiognomic- view of ecosystems is perhaps
the most common one in the practice of
conservation and resource management.
Finally, sphere "D" (Fig. 5) illustrates a
concept of ecosystem defined by all species
occurring in a setting. Interactions themselves
are protected mostly for the sake of conserving
the interacting components. These may be
those species which are present in a protected
area at a date t (e.g., the date at which the
measures start) or -much more difficult to
determine- all species which are considered as
"typical" for a particular site. The aim is here
to perpetuate all species, without fixing
particular growth rates or dwelling places,
abundances, or specific ratios between species.
Everything, besides the species composition, is
in a condition of waxing and waning, including
local disturbances and recolonizations (within
the system). This aim is formulated, for
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Jax, Kurt, 1958- & Rozzi, Ricardo, 1960-. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile, article, 2004; [Santiago, Chile]. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc102284/m1/14/: accessed March 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.