A Depleted Argon Dark Matter Search Page: 3 of 20
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1. THE DARKSIDE COLLABORATION
Augustana College, USA Prof. Drew Alton
Black Hills State University, USA Prof. Dan Durben, Prof Kara Keeter, Prof. Michael Zehfus
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA Dr. Steve Brice, Dr. Aaron Chou, Dr. Jeter Hall, Dr. Hans
Jostlein, Dr. Stephen Pordes, Dr. Andrew Sonnenschein
Princeton University, USA Jason Brodsky, Prof. Frank Calaprice, Huajie Cao, Alvaro Chavarria, Ernst de Haas,
Prof. Cristiano Galbiati, Eng. Augusto Goretti, Eng. Andrea lanni, Tristen Hohman, Ben Loer, Pablo
Mosteiro, Prof. Peter Meyers, Eng David Montanari, Allan Nelson, Eng. Robert Parsells, Richard Sal-
danha, Eng. William Sands, Dr. Alex Wright, Jingke Xu
Temple University, USA Prof. Jeff Martoff, Prof. Susan Jansen-Varnum, Christy Martin, John Tatarowicz
University of California at Los Angeles, USA Prof. Katsushi Arisaka, Prof David Cline, Chi Wai Lam, Kevin
Lung, Prof. Peter F. Smith, Artin Teymourian, Dr. Hanguo Wang
University of Houston, USA Prof. Ed Hungerford and Prof. Lawrence Pinsky
University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA Prof. Laura Cadonati and Prof. Andrea Pocar
University of Notre Dame, USA Prof. Philippe Collon, Daniel Robertson, Christopher Schmitt
University of Virginia, USA Prof. Kevin Lehmann
There is a wide range of astronomical evidence that the visible stars and gas in all galaxies, including our
own, are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous matter, typically an order of magnitude greater in
total mass. The existence of this "dark matter" is consistent with evidence from large-scale galaxy surveys and
microwave background measurements, indicating that the majority of matter in the universe is non-baryonic. The
nature of this non-baryonic component is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the "dark matter puzzle" is
of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics [1-3].
A leading candidate explanation, motivated by supersymmetry theory, is that dark matter is comprised of as
yet undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) formed in the early universe and subsequently
gravitationally clustered in association with baryonic matter. WIMPs could in principle be detected in terrestrial
experiments through their collisions with ordinary nuclei, giving observable low-energy (<100 keV) nuclear recoils.
The predicted low collision rates require ultra-low background detectors with large (0.1-10 ton) target masses,
located in deep underground sites to eliminate neutron background from cosmic ray muons.
Among a large number of developing detector technologies, liquid noble gas time projection chambers (TPCs),
which detect scintillation light and ionization generated by recoiling nuclei, are particularly promising. The
signal/background discrimination power, the attainable precision of determining 3-D event positions, and the
effectiveness of chemical purification and cryogenic distillation methods for Ar and Xe have been demonstrated
in published results from many members of the present collaboration. The Princeton group participates in the
WARP collaboration and has contributed to the operation of a 3.2 kg Ar prototype reaching a sensitivity of
10-42 cm2 in a 96 kg-day run . This effort has been succeeded by a 140 kg Ar detector, WARP-140, which
was commissioned in 2009 and is the largest noble liquid WIMP detector to date. The projected sensitivity of for
WARP-140 in a 6-month run is 1 x10-44 cm2. The UCLA group participated in the ZEPLIN-II detector , which
set a limit of <6x10-42 cm2 in 2006. The UCLA group is now participating in the XENON-100 experiment ,
currently operating at LNGS and expected to reach a cross section sensitivity of ~10-4 cm2 in 7 months of
We propose to develop and operate a new liquid argon detector for WIMP detection, the first to employ argon
with low levels of s9Ar, together with innovations in photon detection and background suppression. The new
technology will be used for a low-background, high sensitivity 50kg detector, the DARKSIDE-50, but it also
makes possible large multi-ton detectors with high sensitivity for WIMP detection. The new detector will make
use of the following new features:
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Alton, Drew; Coll., /Augustana; Durben, Dan; Keeter, Kara; Zehfus, Michael; U., /Black Hills State et al. A Depleted Argon Dark Matter Search, report, October 1, 2009; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015548/m1/3/: accessed June 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.