Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 83 of 237
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4.3 The drift calibration
term effects like temperature variation or high voltage changes. Applying the drift correc-
tion D(d, t) makes the detector response not dependent on ageing, temperature and voltage
effects. The test-stand measurements for ageing and temperature effects are superseded by
the "in situ" measurements presented in this chapter.
4.3.1 Cosmic muons
Cosmic muons are produced by primary cosmic particles (mainly single protons) interacting
in the atmosphere to produce hadronic showers. The mesons (pions and kaons) in those
showers decay to muons. From charge conservation arguments, the charge ratio is expected
to be Nt ~1.3, but it is expected to be a function of the primary particle energy. There
can be several competing processes that change the ratio: the pion to kaon ratio is not
constant over the centre of mass energy, and the relative contribution of pions and kaons to
the decay into muons is a function of energy. More energetic pions are expected to interact
before decaying into muons, leaving the muon component coming from kaons to contribute
more at higher energies. The muon differential production in the atmosphere has been
parameterised  as:
dNI 0.14 - E ,2.71.0 0.054
~ - + -(4.5)
dEt,o cm2 s sr GeV 1+ 1.E,ocosO 11EOCOS
where Et,o is the surface energy of the muon and 0 the zenith angle. The two terms in
brackets represent the contribution to muon production coming from the pions (left) and
the kaons (right). e, (equal to 115 GeV) and EK (equal to 850 GeV) represent the energies
above which pions and kaons interact more often than decay. The E->-7 dependency reflects
the steeply falling cosmic ray flux.
Cosmic muons have been shown to provide an excellent source for monitoring the de-
tector response over time. As explained in section 4.2.1, no absolute energy measurement
is needed in the stage of correcting the detector response over time. This allows us to
use cosmic muons, despite the difference in energy spectra and angular distribution at the
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/83/: accessed April 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.