Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 66 of 237
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3.3 The MINOS detectors
point-like source approximation can arrive at the Far Detector. On the contrary, the Near
Detector accepts a broader range of angles. This difference between the Near Detector and
Far Detector is small and in first approximation it is possible to consider the transfer matrix
diagonal. The precise treatment of the transfer matrix is available in .
3.3 The MINOS detectors
The MINOS detectors are designed to be functionally similar in order to cancel common
systematics. Two detectors (the Near Detector and the Far Detector) are exposed to the
NuMI neutrino beamline. Figure 3.5 shows the pictures of the Near Detector (left) and
Far Detector (right). A third detector, called Calibration Detector, was a smaller detector
prototype for test-beam studies with very similar construction to the main detectors. The
detectors are scintillator/steel sampling calorimeters. The active scintillating medium (ex-
truded polystyrene with PPO and POPOP as scintillating component) is segmented into
strips, which are 4.1 cm wide and 1.0 cm thick. Figure 3.6 shows a sketch of a scintillating
strip in MINOS. The strips are coated with a layer of reflective co-extruded titanium-dioxide
(TiO2). A wavelength-shifting fibre is embedded in the scintillating strip and carries the
signal to the photomultiplier tubes; the wavelength-shifting fibres shift the scintillator light
from blue (A =420 nm) to green (A =470 nm). The scintillating strips in consecutive planes
are oriented 900 from each other to allow 3D tracking. The strips are oriented +450 from the
vertical and they define the u and v directions, in contrast to the horizontal direction x and
vertical direction y in the MINOS coordinate system. The beam direction is referred to as
z. The steel planes are 2.54 cm thick; the distance between two successive steel+scintillator
planes is 5.94 cm, leaving empty space for air. Both the main detectors have a toroidal
magnetic field. Figure 3.7 shows a not-to-scale cartoon which describes the geometry of
the sampling calorimeters. The photomultipliers are operated at 800 V, with typical gain
a 106 photo-electrons.
A light injection system is used at all detectors to monitor the stability of of the pho-
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/66/: accessed April 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.