Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 64 of 237
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3.2 The NuMI neutrino beam
Target Hall Evacuated Pipe Beam Stop Muon Monitors
Target muon (
pion (r ) -_ _ _ . -- - - - - - - -- - - - - ~- - - - -
Protons from ..----- ----- - - - - - l- .
Homn I Hornl 2- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10m 30 M 675 m I
Hadron (pion) Monitor 12 M 3aorn
Figure 3.3: The components of the NuMI beamline. 120 GeV protons from the Main
Injector collide on a graphite target. Secondary mesons are focused and produce neutrinos
from their decay.
Figure 3.3 shows a schematic diagram of the beam line. The primary proton beam hits a
graphite target with dimensions 6.4x15x 940 mm3 that is segmented longitudinally into 47
fins (with a total thickness of 1.9 interaction length). The target needs to be water cooled
at the top and bottom of each fin. Secondary particles from the target, in particular pions
and kaons or tertiary particles deriving from those, are magnetically selected in charge and
momentum using the horns. By adjusting the current in the horns and the relative position
of the target in respect to the first horn, it is possible to change the range of momenta of
the selected mesons. The magnetic field produced by the horns can be reversed to produce
a P, beam. The mesons focused by the horns enter the decay pipe, which is 675 m long
and evacuated to reduce particle absorption. At the end of 2007, it was necessary to fill
the decay pipe with helium at 0.9 atm as the upstream end of the decay pipe was found
to be corroded by the beam activity and there were concerns of implosion. Neutrinos are
produced from decay of pions and kaons, as shown in equations (2.53). At the end of
the decay pipe there is a set of beam absorbers; the final part consists of 300 m of rock
which is used to stop muons and any remaining hadrons. Ionisation chambers are used
to monitor the secondary and tertiary products (hadrons and muons) of the proton-target
interaction and there are ongoing studies to independently extract the neutrino flux from
those monitors . The neutrino beam needs to be inclined downstream by 3.3 to point
at the Far Detector.
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/64/: accessed April 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.