Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 55 of 237
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2.4 Experimental evidence
2.4.4 Sterile neutrino hints
The simplest interpretation of the results coming from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino
Detector (LSND) experiment requires the existence of a fourth neutrino mass state. The
LSND experiment has studied T, -> T, transitions from p+ decay at rest  in 1996.
Two years later the same collaboration has also released results with lower statistics for
v, -- v, transitions from 7+ decaying in flight . For both the analyses, the results
showed an excess of ve/Fe compatible with neutrino oscillations at a mass splitting greater
than 0.4 eV2. This result is incompatible with the solar and atmospheric mass splittings and
requires the introduction of at least one sterile neutrino to allow a much higher splitting.
Other experiments had earlier looked at the parameter space compatible with LSND. In
particular the KARMEN2 experiment was the most similar in characteristic with LSND.
They studied P, -> T, transitions from muons at rest, with results compatible with no
evidence of oscillations at mass splitting lower than 7 eV2 [711.
The MiniBooNE experiment has the ultimate goal to confirm or exclude LSND results
on sterile neutrinos at 0(1 eV2). A beam of v, or T,, is allowed to propagate over a
short-baseline to a Cerenkov detector. MiniBooNE is undertaking a V -- V, or T, -> T,
appearance search. The experiment has released results for V, appearance, observing no
evidence of an excess of v, events above 475 MeV . This, in case of no CPT and CP
violation, rules out the LSND results. Nevertheless, an excess of v, events has been observed
at lower energies, but is not relevant for the LSND mass splitting analysis. Figure 2.15
shows the exclusion oscillation parameters contour for the MiniBooNE experiment (running
with vw,) in comparison with the LSND results. The MiniBooNE collaboration has started
running with a 7, beam, to be more consistent with the LSND conditions. Results with
the first dataset have been released . No significant excess of events has been observed,
both at low energy (200-475 MeV) and at high energy (475-1250 MeV). In June 2010,
updated antineutrino results have been presented at a conference  and show data excess
both at low energy (like in the neutrino case) and at high energy (in the LSND L/E region).
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/55/: accessed April 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.