Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 48 of 237
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2.4 Experimental evidence
R'= (g/e)DATA /MCe)Mc
R' 1,0 -------------------------- --------- --------------------------------
I I I I I I
Figure 2.10: Atmospheric neutrino flux measurements. The quantity R' is plotted from
several experiments. Plot from .
detectors. On the other hand two other experiments, NUSEX  and Frejus , both
iron calorimeters, measured a value of R' consistent with unity. The discrepancy among the
experiments was solved only when Soudan2 , another iron calorimeter experiment, mea-
sured a value of R' consistent with the Cerenkov detector experiments. Following this, the
Super-Kamiokande experiment measured R' with great precision . Figure 2.10 shows
values obtained for R' in various experiments. A value of R' below unity suggests either
that there is a deficit of vl, T, or that there is an appearance of v, T6.
Stronger evidence from atmospheric neutrino oscillations comes from the study of the
neutrino flux as a function of the zenith angle (0) in SK [51, 52, 53]. Downward-going
neutrinos (cos 0 > 0), produced in the atmosphere above the detector, only travel a short
distance to the detector. On the other hand, upward-going particles (cos 0 < 0) are pro-
duced in the atmosphere at the opposite side of the globe and have to cross the Earth to
reach the detector. Figure 2.11 shows the distribution of events as a function of the zenith
angle cosine for selected v, and v1, events in two different energy ranges. While the selected
v, events are consistent with the expectation for no oscillation, the v/, events disagree with
the no oscillation prediction and agree well with the oscillation fit. The low energy sample
shows v1, depletion for the entire spectrum of cos 0, while the high energy sample has a
v1, depletion only for long baseline (upward-going neutrinos). This is consistent with an
energy dependent oscillation of v1, -- v,, where v, is a non-electron neutrino.
In 2004 Super-Kamiokande released a new set of results  showing the oscillation
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/48/: accessed April 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.