Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 43 of 237
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2.4 Experimental evidence
neutrinos because the natural radioactivity background is too high. The reaction studied
was the elastic scattering (ES) of v, on electrons:
v6 + C -- v6 e-- (ES)
Using a Cerenkov detector is an advantage compared to the radiochemical experiments as it
can give information about the rate, direction and kinematics of the neutrino events, while
radiochemical experiments are only event counters. The outgoing e direction from elastic
scattering is correlated to the direction of the neutrinos from the Sun. Kamiokande con-
firmed the deficit of solar neutrinos  and the similar, but much larger Super-Kamiokande
(SK), recently measured the same flux .
Another Cerenkov detector experiment, SNO, consisted of a sphere of heavy water
(D20) surrounded by photomultipliers. While all the other experiments seen so far were
only sensitive to reaction induced by ve, the great advantage of SNO was that it was sensitive
to three types of interaction:
v, + d - p + p + c (threshold = 1.4 MeV) (CC)
v, + d - n + p + v, (threshold = 2.2 MeV) (NC)
as well as the electron scattering interaction (ES) like in Kamiokande and SK. The electron
scattering interaction can happen for all neutrino flavours through neutral current interac-
tions, and only to v, for charged current interactions. The v, interactions dominate this
channel by a factor of ~ 6. From previous experiments it was clear the v, were disap-
pearing and SNO's capability to detect this effect is through the (CC) interactions. The
extra capability that SNO had is the ability to detect the rate of (NC) interactions. The
neutral current interaction rate, if consistent with what was expected from the solar model
would guarantee that v, have converted into other flavour neutrinos. Figure 2.8 shows the
measured fluxes for v, (#1) and non-v, neutrinos (#,). The coloured bands show the la
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/43/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.