Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 41 of 237
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2.4 Experimental evidence
Reaction Abbr. Flux (cm-2s' )
pp - d c+v pp 5.99(1.00 + 0.01) x 1010
pe p ->dv pep 1.42(1.00 +0.02)x 108
3He p - 4He c+ hep 7.93(1.00 + 0.16) x 103
7Be c - 7Li v +() 7Be 4.84(1.00 + 0.11) x 109
8B -- SBe* c+v 8B 5.69(1.00 + 0.16) x 106
13- 13C 3.07(1.00403) x108
150 -- 15 N c+ 15o 2.33(.00403) x108
7F -- 17o C+V 17F 5.84(1.00 + 0.52) x 106
Table 2.2: Solar reactions producing neutrinos. The abbreviation name and the predicted
flux is also given. The first five rows are from the pp chain. The table is taken from .
Other interactions which are not on the pp chain also produce neutrinos, but their contri-
bution is limited to 2% of emitted neutrinos. Table 2.2 shows the interactions happening in
the Sun that produce neutrinos. Figure 2.7 shows the corresponding neutrino energy spec-
trum. It should be noted that the solar neutrino energies overlap with energies of neutrinos
from natural radioactivity. Having a good handle on natural radioactivity background is
essential in solar neutrino experiments.
The first hint for neutrino oscillations came from solar neutrinos detected in radiochemical
experiments. In 1968, Davis and collaborators published results from the Homestake chlo-
rine experiment , showing that the measured flux of the solar electron neutrinos (8B
mainly) was lower than expected. The neutrino reaction studied by their experiment was:
v6 37C1 - _ + 37Ar (2.47)
which has a threshold of 814 keV. The produced 37Ar was then extracted and its rate of
decay was recorded. Two other radiochemical experiments, SAGE and GALLEX, confirmed
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/41/: accessed April 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.