Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 21 of 237
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2.2 The neutrino interactions in the Standard Model and beyond
p+--, provided a starting point for Glashow, Iliopoulos and Maiani to postulate in 1970 
the existence of a new quark, "charm".
The existence of a third neutrino (vT) has now been theoretically and experimentally
established. The indirect experimental evidence of the existence of the third neutrino was
clear from the width of the Z0 boson resonance peak at the Large Electron Positron collider
at CERN. Assuming equal couplings to the Z0 for all possible neutrinos, the fit to the width
of the Z0 allows 2.9840 + 0.0082 neutrino flavours . The measurement of the width of
the Z0 boson only constrains the number of neutrino flavours that interact weakly and have
mass less than half the mass of the Z0 boson. The direct observation of the V, was done
much later, only in 2001, by the DONuT experiment . The principle of the experiment
is quite similar to the v1, discovery experiments, but presents some more challenges due to
the heaviness and short life-time of the T lepton. A beam of v, was produced by colliding
a beam of 800 GeV protons on a thick tungsten target. The D, mesons leaving the target
primarily decay into rV, from the same helicity arguments which make the pion prefer
to decay to fiv, rather than ev6. The r produced by the neutrino interaction (with a
production threshold of ~3.5 GeV) immediately decay into muons, which can be tracked
by the alternating steel and emulsions. The emulsions are necessary to give sufficient spatial
resolution to measure the "kink" from the r decay into the muon (crT=87.11 pm ).
2.2 The neutrino interactions in the Standard Model
Neutrinos are massless fermions in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The elec-
trically charged fermions in the SM are Dirac particles. The mass terms in the Lagrangian
E for charged fermions can be written as:
E) = --mD (RPL PLPR)
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/21/: accessed April 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.