Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions Page: 19 of 237
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2.1 First steps in the history of neutrinos
The existence of the neutrino (although with the name "neutron") was first postulated
by Pauli in 1930 in his famous letter addressed to the participants of the conference on
radioactivity in Ttibingen  to allow momentum conservation in certain nuclear decays.
It was only later, in 1934, that Fermi postulated the theory of # decay , with a massless
neutral particle, the electron neutrino v,, being emitted.
The first experimental detection of the neutrino was made in 1953 by Reines and
Cowan . They used reactor antineutrinos T, in an inverse # decay reaction T,+ p -- C+ + n.
The high neutrino flux (~ 1013 cm-2s 1) from the reactor compensated for the extremely
small neutrino interaction cross section which was expected (~ 6 x 10-44 cm2) . The
detector was made of liquid scintillator alternated with cadmium chloride and water layers.
The signature of the products of this reaction is a prompt signal given by the annihilation
of the positron in the scintillator and by a delayed signal from the captured neutron. The
role of the cadmium target was to moderate the neutrons and enhance their absorption.
In 1958 Goldhaber, Grodzins and Sunyar measured the neutrino helicity  in a beautiful
and sophisticated experiment studying the products from the K-capture of 153 Eu. The
neutrinos were measured to have only left-handed helicity.
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Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford. Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions, thesis or dissertation, July 1, 2010; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1015233/m1/19/: accessed April 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.