A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy Page: 80 of 259
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Figure 2.13. ARPES data acquisition in the 3D phase space k, vs. ky vs. energy with
a 2D multiplexing SDA, experiment progressing from left to right. The far left shows a
single false color plot of ARPES intensity in the 2D plane of ky vs. energy. The entire
image is taken simultaneously. Additional 2D planes at different values of k, are taken by
rotating the sample orientation with respect to the analyzer entrance slit. This can progress
throughout the entire Brillouin zone (or multiple zones even). The far right shows that once
the data is taken, it can also be viewed as 2D planes of k, vs. ky at a given energy. Here
the plane at EF, the FS topology, is shown.
converted into k, vs. ky vs. EBI following equations 2.8. Viewing the acquired data in 2D
slices of intensity of k, vs. ky at fixed EB illustrates constant energy surfaces; at =EB 0,
the Fermi surface (FS) topology is mapped, as in the far right of Figure 2.13. The high
efficiency of these 2D spectrometers allows these FS maps to be taken with unprecedented
high energy and angular resolutions, making ARPES a fantastic direct probe of a material's
FS, a characteristic central to the understanding of a material's charge dynamics. The data
of Figure 2.13 was taken from the layered compound TiTe2 (similar to the first ARPES
experiments by Smith, Traum, and DiSalvo49,50,51) with the in-lab ARPES system using
21.22 eV photons (He lamp) and the Phoibos 150. As this 3 dimensional data set was taken
in just over an hour, it is clear that higher dimensional data sets are possible, probing the
electronic structure more completely as a function of photon energy, temperature, chemical
The impact that the enormous efficiency (and hence practical resolutions) of the 2D
multichannel SDA based spectrometer on the field of ARPES cannot be overstated. One
only has to glance at the huge improvement in data quality as the spectrometers advanced
to see how entirely new physics is uncovered with high resolution ARPES. Figure 2.14(a)
shows an EDC of the L-gap Ag(111) surface state measured at different times during the
rapid development of ARPES and spectrometers. The huge efficiency improvements made
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Jozwiak, Chris. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy, thesis or dissertation, December 1, 2008; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1014237/m1/80/: accessed April 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.