A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy Page: 72 of 259
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kinks in the electronic dispersions,55 to anomalous isotope effects,66 ARPES has been at
the forefront of HTC discoveries.30 The intrinsic high interest in the HTCs encouraged a
constant push for advancements in ARPES instrumentation and technique, which allowed
subsequent discoveries that would not have been otherwise possible. This investment in the
development of the technique is now paying enormous dividends by allowing fundamental
insights in other material systems as well.67,54,68,69,70
With a state-of-the-art system, it is now possible to take a 5-dimensional data set of
intensity as a function of IEBI, k, ky, kz (or hv), and sample temperature through the entire
Brillouin zone within a 24-hour shift, with energy resolutions below 10 meV and momentum
resolutions below 1% of typical Brillouin zones. As part of the work to similarly develop
spin-ARPES that is covered in this thesis, a state-of-the-art ARPES system was designed
and constructed. Technical details of the ARPES technique will be exposed through a brief
summary of this system.
The heart of any photoemission experiment is the instrumentation used to actually
measure the energy (and/or angular and/or spin) distribution of the photoelectron intensity.
We shall refer to instrumentation which measures the photoelectron intensity as a function
of one or more of the above degrees of freedom as an electron spectrometer. An electron
spectrometer must include an electron analyzer and an electron detector. The analyzer
provides the energy (and/or angular and/or spin) analysis, separating the photoemitted
electrons according to kinetic energy (and/or angle of emission and/or spin), while the
detector actually records the final presence of a photoelectron. In the case of Millikan's early
photoemission experiments (section 2.1), the spectrometer was a retarding field Faraday-
cup (detector) which resolved in energy by counting only photoelectrons with energy greater
than that needed to cross an adjustable electrostatic retardation field (energy analyzer). In
the case of Siegbahn's original 3-decay spectrometer (section 2.2), the energy analyzer was
a dispersive magnetic field and the detector was a Geiger-Muller counter. 25
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Jozwiak, Chris. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy, thesis or dissertation, December 1, 2008; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1014237/m1/72/: accessed April 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.