A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy Page: 45 of 259
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devices utilizing the electron spin (spintronics 17,18) explicitly relies on understanding and
manipulating the spin interactions in a wide variety of materials.
Large amounts of progress in our understanding of these and other systems, including
new systems possibly discovered in the near future, can be made by probing their electronic
structure in a spin-sensitive manner. Spin and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy
(spin-ARPES) is the most direct and complete technique for achieving this. Performed
on ferromagnets, spin-ARPES can directly reveal the exchange split minority and major-
ity bands, and probe interesting aspects such as the temperature dependence of the spin
distribution as Tc is approached and crossed. Applied to spintronics materials and de-
vices, spin-ARPES can directly illuminate the spin character of the electronic structure
for comparison with the desired or predicted behaviors. Spin-ARPES performed with cir-
cularly polarized light on nonmagnetic metallic and semiconducting surfaces can generate
spin-polarized photoelectrons due to spin-orbit coupling, providing additional information
(including direct observation of the symmetry of the probed states) not accessible without
spin-resolution. There have even been examples of insights being obtained by performing
spin-resolved photoemission on the HTC cuprates,19,20,21 despite their antiferromagnetic
Although spin-ARPES is an extremely powerful way to experimentally probe these sys-
tems, the technique has been somewhat ignored in comparison to "regular" spin-integrated
ARPES. This is not to say that great spin-ARPES work has not been done. Fantastic
reviews of the field are given in refs. 16,22,23 with more recent results reviewed in ref.
24. However, while ARPES has grown remarkably during the past few decades in both
popularity and impact, spin resolved photoemission has not yet been able to achieve the
same scale of growth in widespread acclaim. Much of the success of ARPES is due to giant
leaps in instrumental capabilities and efficiencies, allowing data to be taken with angu-
lar and energy resolutions at and below the scale needed to observe the most interesting
physics in today's correlated electron research. Instrumentation for spin-resolved experi-
ments have not achieved the same gains in efficiency, forcing the technique to be performed
with significantly compromised resolutions, and hence greatly slowing the advancement of
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Jozwiak, Chris. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy, thesis or dissertation, December 1, 2008; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1014237/m1/45/: accessed April 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.