The Impact Of Lithium Wall Coatings On NSTX Discharges And The Engineering Of The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) Page: 5 of 24
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The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the
engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)
R. Majeski, H. Kugel, R. Kaita'
Additional contributors: S. Avasarala', M. G. Bell1, R. E. Bell1, L. Berzak', P. Beiersdorfer2
S. P. Gerhardt, E. Granstedt, T. Gray, C. Jacobson, J. Kallman' , S. Kaye, T. Kozub',
B. P. LeBlanc', J. Lepson2 , D. P. Lundberg, R. Maingi3, D. Mansfield, S. F. Paull, G. V.
Pereverzev4, H. Schneider, V. Soukhanovskii2 , T. Strickler', D. Stotler', J. Timberlake', and
L. E. Zakharov, and the NSTX and LTX Research Teams
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA.
2 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA.
3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.
4 Max-Planck-Institut Fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748
Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the
benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L-
and H- mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux
consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and
DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the
complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD),
which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being
installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in
the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX.
LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the
world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs).
All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX
employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In
order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500 - 600 C to
promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to
operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio toroidal confinement
device, with plasmas typically having a major radius of 0.85 m and minor radius up to 0.65 m.
Elongations are in the range of 1.6 to 2.8 in discharges with either a single or double null divertor
configuration. Toroidal magnetic fields are from 0.3 to 0.55 T at the magnetic axis, and plasma
currents are typically between 0.6 and 1.5 MA. Auxiliary heating capabilities on NSTX include
7 MW of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI), and 6 MW of high-harmonic fast-wave
(HHFW) power at a frequency of 30 MHz [1,2]. Most of the plasma facing components (PFCs)
in NSTX are carbon tiles.
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Majeski, R.; Kugel, H. & Kaita, R. The Impact Of Lithium Wall Coatings On NSTX Discharges And The Engineering Of The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX), report, March 18, 2010; Princeton, New Jersey. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1013046/m1/5/?rotate=270: accessed April 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.