Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer Page: 4 of 133
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Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is responsible for the design and construction of
upgrades to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford necessary to support the 2018 operation of
the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Upgrades to ETF will include a
Solidification Treatment Unit (STU). The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-
permitted multi-waste treatment and storage unit that can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed
wastewaters for treatment. Addition of the STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for
ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP. Although
the current baseline calls for solidification of the ETF evaporator concentrate in a cement-based waste
form, an evaluation is being conducted to identify and characterize other candidate stabilization
technologies that are mature enough and have the potential of successfully treating the WTP's secondary
liquid waste stream.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is initiating a waste form testing program to support
the evaluation and selection of waste forms for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary
waste stream from the WTP. A literature survey was conducted to identify candidate waste forms. The
candidate stabilization technologies selected include Cast Stone, Duralith alkali-alumino-silicate
geopolymer (Geopolymer), fluidized-bed steam reformer (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a
geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These wastes forms have been shown
to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment
standards for RCRA metals (as measured by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure [TCLP]) to
be acceptable for land disposal. Previous testing reported in the literature indicated there were some
formulation issues that needed to be addressed for the Geopolymer and Ceramicrete waste forms, and
information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their ability to minimize the release of
technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small
quantities, and a recent risk assessment analyses for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) showed
technetium has the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.
To support a final waste form down selection, PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate
waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in
the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious
waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Screening tests on the Ceramicrete phosphate bonded
ceramic and the encapsulated FBSR material will be conducted and documented as those materials
become available. Later, more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted,
following the guidance provided by the secondary waste form selection, development, and performance
evaluation roadmap (PNNL 2009a). The resulting waste form will be compliant to regulations and
performance criteria and will lead to cost-effective disposal of the secondary wastes.
Specific test methods to screen candidate liquid stabilization options are needed, and they need to
provide a framework to 1) rapidly assess material performance, 2) provide some indication of the
dominant release mechanism for specific contaminants of concern (COC), 3) evaluate the strengths and
weaknesses of a variety of materials (placing each material on a level playing field), and 4) gain
regulatory acceptance by drawing on standard test methods approved by the regulatory community. To
address these test needs, three out of four draft test protocols being developed for the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) were used to screen each of the stabilization technologies. The four test
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Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M. et al. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer, report, June 28, 2010; Richland, Washington. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1012350/m1/4/: accessed April 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.