Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation Page: 43
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non-economically disadvantaged peers, the review of literature showed that economically
disadvantaged students were more likely to struggle through high school, less likely to attend
college immediately following high school graduation, and had a greater chance of attending a
two-year community college.
Limited English Proficiency
The state of Texas saw an unprecedented amount of public school student growth from
2000-2010. During this time span, TEA (2014) reported public school student enrollment in the
state of Texas increased by 21.6% from 2000-2010, equating to approximately four times the
overall increase in public school enrollment experienced by the United States. During this time,
the proportion of public school students in Texas identified as English language learners (ELL)
who received limited English proficiency (LEP) educational services increased 46.9% (TEA,
2014). ELL were defined as students who did not speak English as their primary language, and
had a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand the English language (TEA, 2014).
Concerning ELL and LEP individuals, Klein, Bugarin, Beltranena, and McArthur (2004)
reported "63% of all language minorities in the United States were native born - that is, they
were born in the United States or its outlying areas" (p. iv). For the school year 2012-13, TEA
(2014) reported the public schools in Texas were providing LEP educational services to
approximately 865,000 students, 91% of which were Hispanic. Concerning Texas public school
Hispanic students, the Hispanic/Latino ethnic category included students of Cuban, Mexican,
Puerto Rico, South or Central America, or other Spanish culture or origin (TEA, 2014). By
2050, the state of Texas projected that 61% of all PK-12 aged children will be Hispanic
(Fernandez et al., 2017).
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Baker, Emmett Andrew. Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation, dissertation, August 2017; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1011868/m1/51/: accessed April 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .