Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation Page: 41
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necessary for college-level success. Many high school students were likely to be left with a false
sense of preparedness based on their ACT and SAT scores; and it was likely some colleges
recruited and admitted students based on these national norm-based exams, only to discover
these students were not actually as prepared for college as originally believed (National Center
for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010). Geiser and Studley (2002) reported the SAT was
a poor predictor of student college performance as compared to a student's mastery of their high
school curriculum. Furthermore, they found the SAT as a college admission criterion commonly
had a negative effect on poor and minority college applicants as compared to criterion based on
high school class rank and overall academic achievement.
In educational research, one of the most commonly discussed variables in relationship to
student academic success was socioeconomic status (SES). The Texas Education Agency (2014)
defined the SES identification of PK-12 students as economically disadvantaged when any
student was from a family with an annual income at or below the official federal poverty line, or
met eligibility requirements for free or reduced-price meals under the National School Lunch and
Child Nutrition Program, programs assisted under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act
(JTPA), Food Stamp benefits, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), or other public
assistance; this definition of economically disadvantaged applied to students who received Pell
grants or a comparable state program of need-based financial assistance in college. Fernandez et
al. (2017) noted among the six largest states in 2015, Texas had the highest overall poverty rate
at 15.9%. Harwell and LeBeau (2010) found SES to be a recurring educational literature topic,
and frequently studied variable common to many educational studies spanning over 90 years.
Education literature often included SES because it routinely correlated with many other variables
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Baker, Emmett Andrew. Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation, dissertation, August 2017; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1011868/m1/49/: accessed April 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .