Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation Page: 6
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education includes but is not limited to: all forms of learning assistance, such as tutoring,
mentoring, and supplemental instruction; personal, academic, and career counseling;
academic advisement; and coursework. (para. 3)
A common misunderstanding of developmental education programs was these programs
were a recent phenomenon, resulting from perceived deficiencies inherent in America's public
education system, or these types of programs were a modern necessity brought about by higher
education's shift away from privileged education to mass education; examples of remedial
education programs in the United States could be found dating back hundreds of years. Boylan
and White (1987) indicated remedial education in today's higher education environment was
simply "the modern version of past efforts to respond to the fact that, at their point of entry,
many college students are unable to succeed without some sort of special assistance" (p. 3). The
Massachusetts Bay Colony, to provide tutors in Greek and Latin, founded Harvard College in the
17th century for underprepared American clergymen. Land grant colleges were established in
the mid-1800s to teach basic agricultural and mechanical courses. And in 1849, The University
of Wisconsin became the first institute of higher education in the United States to offer remedial
courses in reading, writing, and arithmetic (Boylan & White, 1987; Breneman & Haarlow,
1998). Payne and Lyman (1996) stated the need for remedial education surged following World
War II as millions of returning veterans began to take advantage of the G.I. Bill. Thousands of
underprepared students enrolled in colleges between 1960 and 1980 as a result of open
enrollment admissions policies and federal government funding opportunities following the 1964
Civil Rights Act and Higher Education Act of 1965. Whether referred to as remedial education,
developmental education, college prep, or basic skills development, the basis for this type of
compensatory education for underprepared students had been a part the higher education
environment in the United States for many years (Phipps, 1998).
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Baker, Emmett Andrew. Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation, dissertation, August 2017; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1011868/m1/14/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .