Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation Page: 4
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67). For students enrolled at doctoral degree-granting institutions, approximately 20% took one
or more remedial courses, with 30% at four-year institutions, and 60% at two-year colleges
(Adelman, Daniel, Berkovits, & Owings, 2003; Conley, 2005).
These types of remedial courses became a frequent remedy to the problem of
matriculating the large numbers of students accepted into postsecondary institutions who were
unprepared for the content and rigor of collegiate-level coursework (Hagedorn, Siadat, Fogel,
Noral, & Pascarella, 1999). At an increasing rate, this college readiness path for high school
graduates included the need for some level of postsecondary developmental education.
According to Martorell and McFarlin (2010), "College remediation is an umbrella term that
describes services provided by postsecondary institutions to help underprepared students succeed
in college" (p. 438). These classes most often involved coursework in reading, writing, or
mathematics, and were generally taught by low-paid adjunct faculty (Bettinger & Long, 2005).
According to Boylan and Saxon (2009), only 21% of college remedial education was taught by
full-time faculty. As a result, college-level remedial courses did not normally award graduation
credit (Martorell & McFarlin, 2010).
There were several definitions for what constitutes college-level developmental
education. Some definitions used the terms remedial and developmental as synonyms for any
course taken on a college campus by any student who had been found to be academically below
acceptable college-level standards. However, it was important to differentiate between remedial
courses that focused on academic gaps and core academic deficiencies and developmental
programs, which often included diverse comprehensive services that provided tutoring,
counseling, and skills refinement. Remedial education most often consisted of courses for
students lacking academic skills necessary to perform college-level work at the degree of rigor
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Baker, Emmett Andrew. Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation, dissertation, August 2017; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1011868/m1/12/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .