Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation Page: 3
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examinations; scores on advanced placement (AP) and international baccalaureate (IB) tests;
scores on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness examination (STAAR); and a
college preparedness indicator embedded within the Texas Academic Performance Report
(TAPR). Given these many definitions of college readiness, many graduating high school
seniors were increasingly surprised to find themselves academically and socially underprepared
to matriculate successfully into the rigor and expectations of many colleges and universities.
Enrollment in Remedial College Courses
As a result of these academic deficiencies, alarming numbers of first-year college
students were finding themselves encouraged by academic advisors, and often required by
colleges, to enroll into developmental education programs and remedial courses as a prerequisite
to entry-level college coursework. These non-credit bearing remedial courses at the
postsecondary level became an academic necessity for an increasing number of students
enrolling in America's colleges and universities. For example, 53,852 two-year college and
13,943 four-year college first-year Texas students enrolled in at least one remedial non-credit
bearing course during the fall semester of 2006 (Complete College America, 2012). As a result,
college-level developmental education became a top priority in higher education. Greene and
Forster (2003) reported that as many as 22% of freshmen enrolling in public institutions and 13%
of freshmen enrolling in private institutions were required to take remedial college coursework.
The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education (2010) reported "nearly 60% of
first-year college students discovered that, despite being fully eligible to attend college, they
were not academically ready for postsecondary studies" (p. 1). Long (2014) reported "more than
one-third of all first-year students take some form of remedial coursework in either English or
mathematics, but this figure could be as high as 60% or 70% of students at some institutions" (p.
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Baker, Emmett Andrew. Predictors of Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of First Year College Remediation, dissertation, August 2017; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1011868/m1/11/: accessed April 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .