U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 2-08
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all users thereof and all persons within effective range thereof
from being exposed to excessive dosage of radiation.'
"In 1954, the Federal Government took an important step
when Congress enacted an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of
1946. One purpose of the new act (designated as the Atomic Energy
Act of 1954) was to provide a program to 'encourage widespread
participation in the development and utilization of atomic energy
for peaceful purposes to the maximum extent consistent with the
common defense and security and with the health and safety of
the public.' The act specified that the licenses issued by the
Atomic Energy Commission could cover any type of utilization or
production facility which was sufficiently developed to be of
practical value for industrial or commercial purposes, and it
directed that the licenses be subject to safety standards to
protect health and minimize danger to life or property.
About the same time, 'model codes' containing suggested
language for State radiation-control legislation were issued by
several groups, among them the Council of State Governments,
the National Committee for Radiation Protection, the New England
Committee on Atomic Energy, and the University of Michigan Law
"Then too, the States began to realize that studies of the
problems involved and coordination of atomic energy activities
were essential. In 1955, six States (Connecticut, Illinois,
Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island) adopted laws
authorizing studies to be made in the field of atomic energy
developments, including consideration of the need for legislative
changes because of such developments. Other States adopted simi-
lar laws in the next several years: for example, Massachusetts,
New Jersey, and South Carolina in 1956; Tennessee in 1957;
Kentucky in 1958; and Alaska, Kansas, Missouri, and Texas in
1959. Laws in Arkansas, Florida, Ohio, and Washington, in 1957,
provided for studies to be made and for coordination of atomic
energy activities. Other States providing for coordination
included Connecticut and New York in 1955, and California, North
Carolina, and Oklahoma in 1959.
Congress, in a 1959 amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of
1954, authorized the Atomic Energy Commission under certain con-
ditions to make agreements with individual States, permitting
the latter to exercise control over certain specified sources of
radiation. This gave added impetus to the States to pass more
comprehensive legislation for the actual control of activities
involving radiation and, since 1959, 29 States have passed new
laws or amended existing ones. Many provisions in these laws
are based on the studies made by the States in the previous few
At present 42 States have laws or regulations specifically
designed to control radiation hazards. [See following tabu-
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/94/?rotate=90: accessed April 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.