U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 1-49
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will inevitably be released during the initial venting and this system is
only applicable where this initial release is tolerable. Activity sub-
sequently released to the atmosphere is minimized by closing the exhaust-
duct vent before core overheating occurs. The containment vessel or con-
finement structure must be designed to withstand the pressure that may
be generated after the exhaust duct is closed following the initial re-
lease of air and steam. This type of containment has been considered
for several reactor plants. As employed at the New Production Reactor
at Hanford, this type of containment is coupled with pressure-venting
containment, since a small amount of vapor may be vented through filters
and released to the stack even after the initial blowdown.
1.4.4 Multiple Containment
Since "multiple containment" is receiving considerable attention for
containing power reactors to be located in heavily populated areas, it is
discussed separately here. Multiple containment denotes any one of a
number of methods of providing two or more complete containment barriers
around the primary reactor system.
The two most common forms of multiple containment are (1) that in
which a high-pressure containment structure is surrounded by another
envelope from which the atmosphere may either be cleaned up and released
or pumped back into the containment vessel, and (2) that in which a pres-
sure-suppression system is surrounded by a vented envelope. A major con-
cern with multiple containment systems is that the two containment barriers
are never completely independent, so there remains the possibility, how-
ever remote, that a single event, e.g., sabotage, could violate both sys-
The various multiple containment systems described here, some in-
volving the use of an intermediate negative pressure zone in connection
with a monitoring device to detect leakage, permit much lower leakage
rates than is practical to attain with simple pressure containment. This
is an important fact when siting close to populations is concerned.
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/77/: accessed March 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.