U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 1-37
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High-pressure containment has been used; however, pressure suppression
and pressure relief are also adaptable to such plants.
1.3.2 Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactors
220.127.116.11 Thermal Reactors
Liquid metals, such as liquid sodium, are attractive as reactor cool-
ants because their thermal properties permit the attainment of high op-
erating temperatures without the need for high pressures. In such reactor
systems the coolant system pressure is only that of the dynamic head, and
temperatures of up to 1300F are readily obtained. The high temperatures
allow attainment of steam conditions (approaching a steam temperature of
1000F) that give net plant efficiencies greater than in water reactors.
Graphite usually serves as moderator for these plants. Use of the mod-
erator, of course, makes this a thermal-neutron plant and distinguishes
it from the fast breeder reactor discussed below. Any reactor employing
liquid sodium as the primary coolant must cope with the 24Na activity
which is formed from the neutron activation of the coolant.
Plants using alkali-metal coolants require two heat transfer systems,
as shown schematically in Fig. 1.6, to eliminate the hazard of the pos-
sible generation of radioactive fumes by the chemical reaction of water
and the coolant metal. Such plants may also be expected to be designed
with special reactor cells and double-walled piping, etc., in order to
eliminate the possibility of uncovering the core in any accident. The
secondary coolant system necessitates another heat exchanger and coolant
pump. So far, fewer than ten liquid-metal-cooled thermal reactors have
SECONDARY STEAM GENERATING LOOP
PRIMARY LIQUID LIQUID METAL
METAL LOOPLIQUID METAL
METAL LOOP I TURBINE GENERATOR
INTERMEDIATE - I Fh F ATnO
PRIMARY SYSTEM CONDITIONS
3 -'900 OF
PUMP 815 PSIA
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/65/: accessed March 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.