U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 1-24
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are (1) the emergency supply systems, (2) the containment systems and other
engineered safeguards systems, and (3) the site, including land and the
extra transmission lines needed because of the remote plant location. It
should be remembered that in addition to protecting public safety, safe-
guards are commonly also included in the design of a facility to protect
the capital investment by minimizing damage. Detailed data on the costs
associated with the containment system are presented in Chapter 11.
18.104.22.168 Emergency Supply Systems
Certain auxiliary systems, such as the emergency cooling system,
emergency filter system, and emergency power supply, are provided in most
plants for use in the event of possible unusual circumstances. Only sys-
tems that are not used during normal routine operation of the plant can
be assigned to nuclear safety costs, although normally operating systems
generally provide for the safe operation or shutdown of the plant under
abnormal circumstances. However, extra auxiliary and emergency power
supplies, over and above those which might be found in a conventional
plant, may be desirable to ensure that power will not be lost to the emer-
gency coolant-circulating pumps. Items of this nature can be properly
considered to contribute to nuclear safety costs, whereas items such as
the control system, water-treatment system, and radiation-monitoring sys-
tems cannot. Kallman and Hanson32 estimated the costs of extra emergency
supply systems for a 500-Mw(t) pressurized-water reactor at $1,400,000 or
$10/kw(e). The absolute costs of emergency supply systems might be ex-
pected to be relatively insensitive to the size of the nuclear plant;
therefore, in a large nuclear plant, unit costs would be considerably less
than in a small plant. If the 0.6-power rule is used as a basis for
extrapolating to plants in the 500- to 1000-Mw(e) range, the unit costs
of emergency supply systems would drop to $4 to $6/kw(e).
22.214.171.124 Containment Structures
In many reactor systems the coolant is in a high energy state - high
temperature and high pressure - and any sudden break in the primary system
will vaporize part of the fluid (if a pressurized liquid) and, in any
event, release it to the containment enclosure. The resulting increase
in pressure in the container must either be sustained or relieved in some
way. Various methods of doing this have been proposed, each of which
leads to a number of different types of containment, such as (1) pressure
containment for high or low pressures, (2) pressure-suppression containment,
and (3) pressure-release containment by relief or venting. All these
types of containment are described in subsequent sections of this report
and will not be further described at this point. Some cost data developed
from actual construction, as well as cost estimates, are summarized here,
but the subject of containment costs is covered in full in Chapter 11.
Containment costs for several small reactors are listed in Table 1.4.
As may be seen, these costs range from $20/kw(e) to $169/kw(e) and consti-
tute from 5 to 12 of the total plant cost. Unit containment costs for
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/52/: accessed March 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.