U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 1-11
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credible accident, and the consequences could be more haz-
ardous. Other potentially more hazardous factors than those
represented by the example calculation include the following
"1. Total radioactivity releases to the containment
vessel could theoretically be up to six times as large as
those assumed. Release of long-lived fission products to
the containment vessel could theoretically be up to 99 times
as large as that assumed. These greater releases would affect
doses to the lung, bone, and total body.
"2. For some sites, the atmospheric diffusion conditions
for a small proportion of time could be worse than those as-
sumed in these calculations. Such diffusion conditions could
result in an increase in the inhalation doses.
"3. If the external containment structure should be
rendered completely ineffective at the outset of the accident,
the consequences of the 'maximum credible' accident would be
increased many orders of magnitude. In such a case, the dose
from the cloud and ground contamination could become signifi-
cant in determining the external dose."
With the above frame of reference, the report then outlines, in de-
tail, the analytical techniques and procedures common to many reactor
hazards reports for calculating external and internal exposures from a
fission-product cloud. Data are presented for meteorological conditions,
as given below, that are indicative of the slow dispersion conditions ex-
pected to apply between 15 and 25% of the time in most areas of the United
Wind speed, u 1 m/sec
Horizontal virtual diffusion 0.40 mn/2
Vertical virtual diffusion 0.07 mn/2
Stability parameter, n 0.5 (dimensionless)
The results of calculations employing a containment-structure leak-
age rate of 0.1~/day were used (as an example only) to determine values
of distances for water-cooled and -moderated reactors of various power
levels. The values thus obtained are listed in Table 1.2.
Further from ref. 4:
"The estimated radii for power reactors are graphically
represented in [Figs. 1.1 and 1.2]. For the exclusion dis-
tance, doses from both direct gamma radiation from the reactor
building and from iodine in the cloud escaping from the re-
actor building were calculated, and the distance established
on the basis of the effect requiring the greater isolation.
[Figure 1.1] shows the controlling dose for various power levels.
"Under the conditions assumed, the doses resulting from
the inhalation of the isotopes of iodine are controlling for
the low population zone distance and population center
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/39/: accessed March 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.