U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1 Page: 1-06
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the strict sense nor is this safety factor per se a reliable indicator
of the relative safety of vessels built to the two Codes. The various
ASME Codes rather carefully avoid the use of the term safety factor.
The economical utilization of materials, without sacrificing safety,
is the aim of Section III of the ASME Code. It accomplishes this by (1)
placing clearly defined limits on the various types of stresses, (2) re-
quiring detailed stress analyses based on rigorous methods of experimental
methods, (3) requiring thorough materials inspections, (4) requiring
thorough vessel inspection during fabrication and, finally (5) clearly
defining the responsibilities of the purchaser, fabricator, and authorized
While Section VIII appears to use lower allowable design stresses,
certain stresses may be significantly higher than in a comparable vessel
designed to Section III. This is due to the fact that the rules of Sec-
tion VIII are less restrictive (by omission) regarding discontinuity
stresses, thermal stresses, materials inspection, testing, and so forth.
One important feature that is dependent on mechanical design, but is
not covered in any detail by the ASME Boiler Code, is leakage. Generally,
the smallest leakage rate that can be reasonably obtained from the stand-
points of economics, fabricability, and measurability is specified, pro-
vided the maximum permissible exposure is not exceeded at the exclusion
area perimeter in the event of an accident. At present this figure for
large steel or steel-lined containment vessels can be reduced to less than
0.1% of the contained volume per day at design or acceptance test pressure.
1.2 RAMIFICATIONS OF REACTOR CONTAINMENT
As this report shows, the reactor containment technology has many
and varied ramifications, not all of which are well understood. While
some of these may seem quite remote from the structure itself, all are
involved in its specification, design, fabrication, test, or operation
in some way.
1.2.1 Reactor Site Criteria
The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has established guides for use
in the evaluation of proposed sites for stationary power and test reactors
licensed by the AEC. These guides apply only to reactors in which the
probability of any accident occurring is small. The approved site criteria
guides were released in the Federal Register on April 12, 1962, and were
subsequently incorporated in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, as
Part 100. The approval of these guides was preceded by more than three
years of intensive study during which time proposed guides appeared twice
in the Federal Register6'7 for comments, which were profuse on both oc-
casions, , and following which the proposed guides were extensively
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Cottrell, William B. & Savolainen, A. W. U.S. Reactor Containment Technology: a Compilation of Current Practice in Analysis, Design, Construction, Test, and Operation, Volume 1, report, August 1965; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc101033/m1/34/: accessed March 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.