Coating Microstructure-Property-Performance Issues

Coating Microstructure-Property-Performance Issues

Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Totemeier, Terry C. & Wright, Richard N.
Description: Results of studies on the relationships between spray parameters and performance of thermally-sprayed intermetallic coatings for high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance are presented. Coating performance is being assessed by corrosion testing of free-standing coatings, thermal cycling of coating substrates, and coating ductility measurement. Coating corrosion resistance was measured in a simulated coal combustion gas environment (N2-CO-CO2-H2O-H2S) at temperatures from 500 to 800°C using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA testing was also performed on a typical ferritic-martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel, and a wrought Fe3Al-based alloy for direct comparison to coating behavior. FeAl and Fe3Al coatings showed corrosion rates slightly greater than that of wrought Fe3Al, but markedly lower than the steels at all temperatures. The corrosion rates of the coatings were relatively independent of temperature. Thermal cycling was performed on coated 316SS and nickel alloy 600 substrates from room temperature to 800°C to assess the relative effects of coating microstructure, residual stress, and thermal expansion mismatch on coating cracking by thermal fatigue. Measurement of coating ductility was made by acoustic emission monitoring of coated 316SS tensile specimens during loading.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Imaging, Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical
Description: The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

Date: March 31, 2004
Creator: Bockelie, Mike; Davis, Kevin; Linjewile, Temi; Senior, Connie; Eddings, Eric; Whitty, Kevin et al.
Description: This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

Date: September 19, 2006
Creator: Meier, W R; Moir, R W & Abbott, R
Description: This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron

Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron

Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Oryshchyn, Danylo B. & Dogan, Omer N.
Description: Liquid permeability in the dendritic regions is one of the factors that determine porosity formation and macro segregation in castings. Permeability in the dendritic structure of Ni-Hard white iron was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of microstructural coarsening on the permeability was also investigated. Permeability increased with coarsening dendritic structure in Ni-Hard white iron.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing: Integrating Processing and Performance

Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing: Integrating Processing and Performance

Date: July 23, 2007
Creator: Apelian, D.
Description: The objective of the project is to develop an integrated process for fast, high-temperature carburizing. The new process results in an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time compared to conventional carburizing and represents significant energy savings in addition to a corresponding reduction of scrap associated with distortion free carburizing steels.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fragmentation cross sections of 28Si at beam energies from 290AMeV to 1200A MeV

Fragmentation cross sections of 28Si at beam energies from 290AMeV to 1200A MeV

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Zeitlin, C.; Fukumura, A.; Guetersloh, S.B.; Heilbronn, L.H; Iwata, Y.; Miller, J. et al.
Description: In planning for long-duration spaceflight, it will beimportant to accurately model the exposure of astronauts to heavy ions inthe Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). As part of an ongoing effort to improveheavy-ion transport codes that will be used in designing futurespacecraft and habitats, fragmentation cross sections of 28Si have beenmeasured using beams with extracted energies from 290A MeV to 1200A MeV,spanning most of the peak region of the energy distribution of siliconions in the GCR. Results were obtained for six elemental targets:hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead. The charge-changingcross sections are found to be energy-independent within the experimentaluncertainties, except for those on the hydrogen target. Cross sectionsfor the heaviest fragments are found to decrease slightly with increasingenergy for lighter targets, but increase with energy for tin and leadtargets. The cross sections are compared to previous measurements atsimilar energies, and to predictions of the NUCFRG2 model used by NASA toevaluate radiation exposures in flight. For charge-changing crosssections, reasonable agreement is found between the present experimentand those of Webber, et al. and Flesch, et al., and NUCFRG2 agrees withthe data to within 3 percent in most cases. Fragment cross sections showless agreement between experiments, and there are substantial differencesbetween NUCFRG2 predictions andthe ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Picosecond Soft-X-ray studies of Dense Plasma Regimes Progress Report (April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007)

Picosecond Soft-X-ray studies of Dense Plasma Regimes Progress Report (April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007)

Date: April 16, 2007
Creator: Rocca, Jorge; Marconi, Mario; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Dunn, James; Moon, Stephen & Nilsen, Joseph
Description: Dense plasma diagnostics, soft x-ray laser interferometry, converging plasmas.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Restoration, NSTec Environmental
Description: File Part 1 of 10 (Comprises main document and Appendices A and B)
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A method for permanent CO2 mineral carbonation

A method for permanent CO2 mineral carbonation

Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Nilsen, David N.; Rush, G.E.; Walters, Richard P. & Turner, Paul C.
Description: The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of mineral carbonation as a method for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. The research is part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the Office of Fossil Energy in DOE. Other participants in this Program include DOE?s Los Alamos National Laboratory and National Energy Technology Laboratory, Arizona State University, and Science Applications International Corporation. The research has focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC reacts a slurry of magnesium silicate mineral with supercritical CO2 to produce a solid magnesium carbonate product. To date, olivine and serpentine have been used as the mineral reactant, but other magnesium silicates could be used as well. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and consequently, these results may also be applicable to strategies for in-situ geological sequestration. Baseline tests were begun in distilled water on ground products of foundry-grade olivine. Tests conducted at 150 C and subcritical CO2 pressures (50 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to carbonate. Increasing the partial pressure of CO2 to supercritical (>73 atm) conditions, coupled with agitation ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Chidsey, Thomas C.
Description: No abstract prepared.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. Examination Completed March 2007.

Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. Examination Completed March 2007.

Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Pardini, Allan F. & Weier, Dennis R.
Description: AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Thermo-magnetic instabilities in Nb3Sn superconducting accelerator magnets

Thermo-magnetic instabilities in Nb3Sn superconducting accelerator magnets

Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Bordini, Bernardo & U., /Pisa
Description: The advance of High Energy Physics research using circulating accelerators strongly depends on increasing the magnetic bending field which accelerator magnets provide. To achieve high fields, the most powerful present-day accelerator magnets employ NbTi superconducting technology; however, with the start up of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007, NbTi magnets will have reached the maximum field allowed by the intrinsic properties of this superconductor. A further increase of the field strength necessarily requires a change in superconductor material; the best candidate is Nb{sub 3}Sn. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are currently working on developing Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets, and although these magnets have great potential, it is suspected that their performance may be fundamentally limited by conductor thermo-magnetic instabilities: an idea first proposed by the Fermilab High Field Magnet group early in 2003. This thesis presents a study of thermo-magnetic instability in high field Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. In this chapter the following topics are described: the role of superconducting magnets in High Energy Physics; the main characteristics of superconductors for accelerator magnets; typical measurements of current capability in superconducting strands; the properties of Nb{sub 3}Sn; a description of the manufacturing process of Nb{sub 3}Sn strands; superconducting cables; ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Investigation of laser-induced damage in DKDP under multi-color irradiation

Investigation of laser-induced damage in DKDP under multi-color irradiation

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Radousky, H B; Feit, M D & Demos, S G
Description: Laser-induced initiation of bulk damage sites in DKDP crystals is investigated under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm nanosecond laser pulses in order to simulate the operational conditions during harmonic conversion as well as probe the damage mechanisms. The results demonstrate synergetic damage effects under the dual-wavelength excitation. Furthermore, the damage performance is directly related to and can be predicted from the damage performance at each wavelength separately. The measured relative effective absorption coefficients at the two wavelengths are found to depend on the laser fluence. Laser-induced damage sites initiated within the bulk of optical components is a key limiting factor in the development of high power laser systems. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} or KDP) and its deuterated analog (KD{sub 2-x}H{sub x}PO{sub 4} or DKDP) have been widely used for over three decades as Pockels cells and frequency converters and are still the only nonlinear materials suitable for large-aperture laser systems [1,2]. Damage thresholds in these materials have increased over time, primarily due to purer raw materials and improvement in growth processes, though localized damage sites still arise from laser intensities far below that necessary for intrinsic dielectric breakdown [3]. The damage precursors and their absorption mechanism leading ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
MOLECULAR DESORPTION OF BAKED STAINLESS STEEL FROM IRRADIATION WITH 9 GeV/NUCLEON Au79+, 10 GeV/NUCLEON Cu29+, AND 23GeV p+ UNDER PERPENDICULAR IMPACT.

MOLECULAR DESORPTION OF BAKED STAINLESS STEEL FROM IRRADIATION WITH 9 GeV/NUCLEON Au79+, 10 GeV/NUCLEON Cu29+, AND 23GeV p+ UNDER PERPENDICULAR IMPACT.

Date: April 9, 2007
Creator: FISCHER,W.; IRISO, U. & MUSTAFIN, E.
Description: We report on molecular desorption of baked stainless steel from irradiation with high energy ions under perpendicular impact. Ion induced molecular desorption has affected the performance of a number of ion accelerators, in which the beam loss typically occurs under small angles. However, experimental parameters can be easier controlled in measurements with perpendicular impact. Desorption coefficients for small angle impact can be estimated from these measurements. The measurements were carried out at Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Molecular Mechanism of Metal-Chalcogen Bond Formation in theSynthesis of Colloidal II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

Molecular Mechanism of Metal-Chalcogen Bond Formation in theSynthesis of Colloidal II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Liu, Haitao; Owen, Jonathan S. & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Description: No abstract prepared.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Steam for the Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests

High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Steam for the Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests

Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hawkes, G. L.; Herring, J. S. & Hartvigsen, J. J.
Description: An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Solar atmosphere neutrino oscillations

Solar atmosphere neutrino oscillations

Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; /INFN, Bari; Montanino, D.; /INFN, Lecce et al.
Description: The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations on the solar atmosphere neutrino fluxes observable at Earth. We find that peculiar matter oscillation effects in the Sun do exist, but are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ''vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23}).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Colton, David P.
Description: The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.