The State of the Hudson 2009

The State of the Hudson 2009

Date: 2009
Creator: New York (State). Hudson River Estuary Program.
Description: This report describes the environmental quality of the Hudson River and its watershed, including issues such as pollution, population growth, and biodiversity. The report also describes the habitats of estuaries, watersheds, and rivers in general.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Water Quality: Federal Role in Addressing and Contributing to Nonpoint Source Pollution

Water Quality: Federal Role in Addressing and Contributing to Nonpoint Source Pollution

Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the impacts of nonpoint source water pollution and the potential costs of dealing with the problem, focusing on: (1) funding levels for federal programs that primarily address nonpoint source pollution; (2) the way Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assesses the overall potential costs of reducing nonpoint pollution nationwide and alternative methods for doing so; and (3) nonpoint source pollution from federal facilities, lands, and activities that federal agencies manage or authorize, or for which they issue permits or licenses."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality: Inconsistent State Approaches Complicate Nation's Efforts to Identify Its Most Polluted Waters

Water Quality: Inconsistent State Approaches Complicate Nation's Efforts to Identify Its Most Polluted Waters

Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) believes that more than 20,000 bodies of water throughout the country are too polluted to meet water quality standards. States use different approaches to identify impaired waters. This variation has led not only to inconsistencies in the listing of impaired waters but also to difficulties in identifying the total number of impaired waters nationwide and the total number of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) needed to bring such waters up to standards. Under the Clean Water Act and its regulations, EPA has given the states some flexibility to develop listing approaches that are tailored to their circumstances. However, some of the approaches have no appropriate scientific basis. States apply a range of quality assurance procedures to ensure the quality of data used to make impairment decisions. Although states have long used quality assurance procedures for the data they collect directly, they have become increasingly vigilant about applying such procedures to data from other sources. Because of inconsistencies in states' approaches to identifying impaired waters, the information in EPA's database of impaired waters is of questionable reliability. The number of impaired waters ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

Date: September 2005
Creator: Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth
Description: The effects of global climate change from greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are diverse and potentially very large, and probably constitute the most serious long-term environmental issue currently facing the world. This paper is prepared as task 1 of the project 'Modelling support for Future Actions - Benefits and Cost of Climate Change Policies and Measures', ENV.C.2/2004/0088, led by K.U.Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The paper provides a rapid review and analysis of the impacts and economic costs from climate change. The objective is to provide estimates of the benefits of climate change policy, i.e. from avoided impacts, for support to the Commission in considering the benefits and costs of mitigation efforts, and to support DG Environment in its report to the Spring Council 2005 and in future international negotiations on climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Water Quality: Problems in the New River and Imperial County, California

Water Quality: Problems in the New River and Imperial County, California

Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined a number of issues concerning water quality problems in the New River and Imperial County in southern California, focusing on the: (1) types and the sources of pollutants entering the New River; (2) agencies and the organizations responsible for monitoring and regulating pollution in the New River; (3) risks to human health and the environment from water pollution in Imperial County; (4) health advisories and the precautions in place to protect the public from pollution in the New River; and (5) actions being taken to reduce the flow of pollutants into the Salton Sea."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Simulation of physical and chemical processes in reservoirs: Two case studies.

Simulation of physical and chemical processes in reservoirs: Two case studies.

Date: December 2005
Creator: GarcĂ­a Iturbe, Selma L.
Description: Managing water quality aspects requires the use of integrative tools that allow a holistic approach to this problem. Water quality models coupled to hydrodynamic models are these tools. This study presents the application of the water quality model WASP coupled to the hydrodynamic model DYNHYD for two distinct reservoirs: Lake Texoma and Tocoma Reservoir. Modeling the former included simulations of water velocities, water level, and four chemical and physical compounds: chlorides, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS); and validation of the results by comparing with observed values during March - May, 1997. The latter is still under project status and the simulation was performed in a prospective way. The analysis included simulations of water velocities under current and for expected conditions, DO and BOD. Both models, DYNHYD and WASP, fitted pretty well to observed conditions for Lake Texoma and for where Tocoma Reservoir has been planned. Considering management and decision support purposes, the role of boundary and loading conditions also was tested. For Lake Texoma, controlling boundary conditions for chlorides is a determinant factor for water quality of the system. However, DO and TSS in the reservoir are governed by additional process besides the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Water Quality: Better Data and Evaluation of Urban Runoff Programs Needed to Assess Effectiveness

Water Quality: Better Data and Evaluation of Urban Runoff Programs Needed to Assess Effectiveness

Date: June 29, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers the contaminants in storm water runoff as a significant threat to water quality across the nation. Prompted by Congress, EPA has responded with various initiatives, including the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Storm Water Program, which requires more than 1,000 local governments to undertake storm water management programs. Those municipalities in Phase I of the program have been trying to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff for several years, and it is time to begin evaluating their efforts. EPA however, has not established measurable goals for this program, nor has it attempted to evaluate the program's effectiveness in reducing storm water pollution or to determine its cost. EPA attributes its inaction to inconsistent data reporting from municipalities, insufficient staff resources, and other competing priorities within the Office of Wastewater Management. Although municipalities report monitoring and cost data to EPA or state regulatory agencies annually, these agencies have not reviewed this information to determine whether it can be useful in determining the program's overall effectiveness or cost. GAO found that the reported cost information will be difficult to analyze unless EPA ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
ReSource, Volume 12, 2000

ReSource, Volume 12, 2000

Date: 2000
Creator: University of North Texas
Description: ReSource magazine includes articles and notes about research at University of North Texas in various academic fields.
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Water Quality: Key EPA and State Decisions Limited by Inconsistent and Incomplete Data

Water Quality: Key EPA and State Decisions Limited by Inconsistent and Incomplete Data

Date: March 15, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Water Quality Inventory, focusing on whether: (1) the information in EPA's National Water Quality Inventory is reliable and representative of water quality conditions nationwide; and (2) available data are sufficient to allow state officials to make key decisions about activities required by the Clean Water Act, such as identifying waters that do not meet water quality standards and developing strategies to address those waters."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Quantitative Chemical Examination of Surface Well Water from the Three Principal Geological Divisions of Denton County

A Quantitative Chemical Examination of Surface Well Water from the Three Principal Geological Divisions of Denton County

Date: August 1936
Creator: Schnably, John Robert
Description: A sample of the surface-well water was taken from an area of the predominating soil of each of the three geological regions of Denton County, Texas, and a chemical analysis of each sample was made. This thesis deals with the area from which the samples were taken, the methods of analysis used, and the results of the analysis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Spatio-temporal Variation of Nitrate Levels in Groundwater in Texas, 1970 to 2010

Spatio-temporal Variation of Nitrate Levels in Groundwater in Texas, 1970 to 2010

Date: December 2012
Creator: Rice, Susan C.
Description: This study looks at spatial variation of groundwater nitrate in Texas and its fluctuations at 10 year increments using data from the Texas Water Development Board. While groundwater nitrate increased in the Ogallala and Seymour aquifers across the time period, the overall rate in Texas appears to be declining as time progresses. However, the available data is limited. Findings show that a much more targeted, knowledge based strategy for sampling would not only reduce the cost of water quality analysis but also reduce the risk of error in these analyses by providing a more realistic picture of the spatial variation of problem contaminants, thereby giving decision-makers a clearer picture on how best to handle the reduction and elimination of problem contaminants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Water Quality: Improved EPA Guidance and Support Can Help States Develop Standards That Better Target Cleanup Efforts

Water Quality: Improved EPA Guidance and Support Can Help States Develop Standards That Better Target Cleanup Efforts

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Water quality standards are composed of designated uses and criteria. These standards are critical in making accurate, scientifically based determinations about which of the nation's waters are in need of cleanup. To assess EPA and states' actions to improve standards, the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment asked GAO to determine the extent to which (1) states are changing designated uses when necessary and EPA is assisting the states toward that end and (2) EPA is updating its criteria documents and assisting states in establishing criteria that can be compared with reasonably obtainable monitoring data."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality: Program Enhancements Would Better Ensure Adequacy of Boat Pumpout Facilities in No-Discharge Zones

Water Quality: Program Enhancements Would Better Ensure Adequacy of Boat Pumpout Facilities in No-Discharge Zones

Date: May 24, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Clean Water Act regulations generally prohibit boats from discharging untreated sewage but allow the discharge of treated sewage using certified marine sanitation devices. The act allows states to designate "no-discharge zones"--areas in which vessels are prohibited from discharging any sewage--if the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finds that adequate facilities exist in such zones for the removal and treatment of sewage from vessels. In some cases, such as for drinking water intake zones, EPA makes the designation. As requested, this report assesses (1) EPA's process for determining the adequacy of facilities to remove and treat sewage in proposed no-discharge zones; (2) the extent to which EPA and the states ensure that adequate facilities remain available after designation; (3) the extent to which the Coast Guard and the states enforce discharge prohibitions; and (4) various effects of no-discharge zones, as identified by EPA, states, and localities."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by select physicochemical and biological water quality parameters in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas.

Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by select physicochemical and biological water quality parameters in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Clyde, Gerard A.
Description: From August 1996 through September 1997 eleven fixed stations were sampled monthly in January, March , April , July, August, September, and November and fortnightly in May and June for the purposes of establishing baseline conditions present in Lake Texoma as related to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers chloride control activities in the upper Wichita River, Texas. Five reservoir zones were identified a priori using historical chloride concentration data and include the Red River Zone (RRZ), Red River Transition Zone (RRTZ), Main Lake Body (MLB), Washita River Transition Zone (WRTZ), and Washita River Zone (WRZ) in order of decreasing chloride concentration. The existence of the WRTZ is not supported here, however the Big Mineral Arm in the RRTZ was observed to be highly independent of the mixing patterns observed in the RRTZ and was treated post priori separately from the RRTZ. Spatial and temporal comparisons between reservoir zones were performed on seventeen (17) physicochemical parameters from each of the eleven sampling stations and phytoplankton count data from one sampling station within each reservoir zone and physicochemical parameters were observed to exhibit a fixed spatial gradient. Strong density gradients throughout the reservoir were observed to occur in conjunction with vertical stratification ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions

Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions

Date: August 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP), Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions. This is part of a series of 21 SAPs produced by the CCSP aimed at providing current assessments of climate change science to inform public debate, policy, and operational decisions. This SAP focuses on the use of climate observations, data, forecasts, and other projections in decision support.
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Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Date: February 10, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the adequacy of the data that the Environmental Protection Agency and the states have for making critical water quality decisions required by the Clean Water Act, focusing on: (1) the adequacy of the data for identifying waters for states' 303(d) lists; (2) the adequacy of data for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for those waters; and (3) key factors that affect the states' abilities to develop TMDLs."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Date: March 23, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the data that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states have for making critical water quality decisions required by the Clean Water Act, focusing on: (1) the adequacy of the data for identifying waters for states' 303(d) lists; (2) the adequacy of data for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for those waters; and (3) key factors that affect the states' abilities to develop TMDLs."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: United States. Congress. House
Description: The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977. Under the CWA, EPA has implemented pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. We have also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained. EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls discharges. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Public Health Service Act

Public Health Service Act

Date: 1974
Creator: United States. Congress
Description: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources. The Act authorizes EPA to establish minimum standards to protect tap water and requires all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with these primary (health-related) standards. The 1996 amendments to SDWA require that EPA consider a detailed risk and cost assessment, and best available peer-reviewed science, when developing these standards. State governments, which can be approved to implement these rules for EPA, also encourage attainment of secondary standards (nuisance-related). Under the Act, EPA also establishes minimum standards for state programs to protect underground sources of drinking water from endangerment by underground injection of fluids.
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Clearing the Waters: A focus on water quality solutions

Clearing the Waters: A focus on water quality solutions

Date: March 2010
Creator: Palanaippan, Meena; Gleick, Peter H.; Allen, Lucy; Cohen, Michael J.; Christian-Smith, Juliet; Smith, Courtney et al.
Description: This report discusses global water issues and offers a variety of proposals for countering the degradation of freshwater ecosystems for the benefit of public health and the environment.
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Draft Report of the 28th Session of the IPCC

Draft Report of the 28th Session of the IPCC

Date: April 2008
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The focus of this meeting was on the Future of the IPCC, including key aspects of the future IPCC work programme and the future structure of the IPCC Bureau and the TFB. The Panel was also invited to consider of the outcome of the Scoping Meeting for a possible Special Report on renewable energy and a proposal for the use of the Funds from the Nobel Peace Prize. The Chair informed the Panel about action taken by the 37th Session of the IPCC Bureau (Budapest, 7-8 April 2008) concerning the finalization of the Technical Paper on Climate Change and Water.
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UGEC Viewpoints, No. 2, September 2009

UGEC Viewpoints, No. 2, September 2009

Date: September 2009
Creator: Urbanization and Global Environmental Change Project
Description: Urbanization is a global phenomenon that has transformed and continues to alter landscapes and the ways in which societies function and develop. For this issue of UGEC Viewpoints, the editors collected case-studies presented at the Open Meeting that span across regions and themes: from Australia and the United States, as well as the less developed nations in Africa, megacities of Asia such as Dhaka, Bangladesh and Delhi, India, vulnerable coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, and the largest rainforest in the world, the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, more than half of the world's population lives in cities; the United Nations projects that by 2030 the world will advance to the 60% urbanization threshold. Rapid urbanization effects will not only be present within the immediate locations (cities and their metropolitan areas), but will be experienced regionally and globally. The UGEC project seeks to better understand these implications and the complex dynamic systems of urban areas that affect and are affected by global environmental change (e.g., climate change, natural disasters, loss of biodiversity, freshwater ecosystem decline, desertification, and land degradation). Several commonalities are readily identifiable in the authors' research, some of which include an attention to the roles of the governance structures within ...
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Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972

Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972

Date: unknown
Creator: United States. Congress
Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA), also referred to as the Ocean Dumping Act, generally prohibits transportation of material from the United States for the purpose of ocean dumping; transportation of material from anywhere for the purpose of ocean dumping by U.S. agencies or U.S.-flagged vessels; dumping of material transported from outside the United States into the U.S. territorial sea. A permit is required to deviate from these prohibitions. Under MPRSA, the standard fro permit issuance is whether the dumping will "unreasonably degrade or endanger" human health, welfare, or the marine environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged with developing ocean dumping criteria to be used in evaluating permit applications.
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Algae in water supplies: an illustrated manual on the identification, significance, and control of algae in water supplies.

Algae in water supplies: an illustrated manual on the identification, significance, and control of algae in water supplies.

Date: 1959
Creator: Palmer, Charles Mervin, 1900-
Description: A manual designed to help "water analysts and others who deal with the many problems and effects associated with the presence of algae in water supplies."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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