Integrated Assessment of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

Integrated Assessment of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

Date: May 2000
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Committee on Environment and Natural Resources.
Description: This document details the ecological and economic effects of low oxygen (hypoxic) conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. This condition is caused by deforestation, river channelization, and the overuse of nitrogen in agricultural fertilizer. This document summarizes scientific evidence for the causes of hypoxia, the negative impact on Gulf of Mexico fisheries, and long-term national strategies for managing and mitigating the problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
An Assessment of Coastal Hypoxia and Eutrophication in U.S. Waters

An Assessment of Coastal Hypoxia and Eutrophication in U.S. Waters

Date: November 2003
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Air Quality Research Subcommittee.
Description: This document is about hypoxia in aquatic ecosystems. Hypoxia is a depletion of oxygen caused by runoff, land cover change, and other factors associated with population growth and agriculture. The report discusses mitigation strategies and trends in managing this problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Water-soluble Phosphors for Hypoxia Detection in Chemical and Biological Media

Water-soluble Phosphors for Hypoxia Detection in Chemical and Biological Media

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Satumtira, Nisa Tara
Description: Water-soluble Pt(II) phosphors exist predominantly for photophysical studies. However, fewer are known to be candidates for cisplatin derivatives. If such a molecule could exist, it would be efficient at not only destroying the cancerous cells which harm the body, but the destruction would also be traceable within the human body as it occurred. Herein, research accomplished in chemistry describes the photophysical properties of a water-soluble phosphor. Spectroscopically, this phosphor is unique in that it possesses a strong green emission at room temperature in aqueous media. Its emission is also sensitive to the gaseous environment. These properties have been expanded to both analytical and biological applications. Studies showing the potential use of the phosphor as a heavy metal remover from aqueous solutions have been accomplished. The removal of toxic heavy metals was indicated by the loss of emission as well as the appearance of a precipitate. The gaseous sensitivity was elicited to be used as a potential cancerous cell biomarker. In vivo studies were accomplished in a wide variety of species, including bacteria (E. coli), worms (C. elegans), small crustaceans (Artemia), and fish (D. rerio and S. ocellatus). The phosphor in question is detectable in all of the above. This fundamental ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Morphological and physiological developmental consequences of parental effects in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the zebrafish larva (Danio rerio).

Morphological and physiological developmental consequences of parental effects in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the zebrafish larva (Danio rerio).

Date: August 2008
Creator: Ho, Dao H.
Description: Cardiac, metabolic and growth response of early-stage chicken embryos to perturbations in yolk environment was investigated. Also, effects of parental hypoxia exposure on hypoxia resistance, thermal tolerance and body length of zebrafish larvae were investigated. In the first study, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and testosterone produced differential effects on heart rate and development rate of chicken embryos during the first 4 days of development. Triiodothyronine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 or 70 hours of age, while thyroxine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 hours only. Testosterone and propyl-thiouracil (deiodinase antagonist) did not have an effect on heart rate. Development rate was not changed by thyroxine, triiodothyronine, testosterone or propyl-thiouracil, which suggested that heart rate changes did not result from changes in embryo maturity. In the second study, chicken embryos exposed to yolks of different bird species during early-stage embryonic development showed changes in heart rate, mass-specific oxygen consumption and body mass that scaled with the egg mass, incubation period length, and yolk triiodothyronine and testosterone levels of the species from which yolk was derived. In the third study, this phenomenon was investigated between layer and broiler chickens. Heart rate, oxygen consumption ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Date: August 2011
Creator: Little, Brent Ashley
Description: It was hypothesized that chronic hypoxia will affect various biological processes including developmental trajectory and behavior. To test this hypothesis, embryos were raised to adulthood in severe hypoxic environments (0.5% O2 or 1% O2, 22°C) and analyzed for survival rate, developmental progression, and altered behaviors. Wildtype hermaphrodites survive chronic hypoxia yet developmental trajectory is slowed. The hermaphrodites raised in chronic hypoxia had different phenotypes in comparison to the normoxic controls. First, hermaphrodites exposed to chronic hypoxia produced a significantly lower number of embryos and had a slight increase in male progeny. This suggests that chronic hypoxia exposure during development affects the germline. Second, animals raised in chronic hypoxia from embryos to young adults have a slight increase in lifespan when re-exposed to a normoxic environment, indicating that chronic hypoxia does not negatively decrease lifespan. Finally, hermaphrodites that were raised in hypoxia will lay the majority of their eggs on the area of the agar plate where the bacterial lawn is not present. This is in contrast to animals in normoxia, which lay the majority of their eggs on the bacterial lawn. One hypothesis for this hypoxia-induced egg-laying behavior is that the animal can sense microenvironments in hypoxia. To examine if ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Cardio-respiratory ontogeny and the transition to bimodal respiration in an air breathing fish, the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus): Morphological and physiological development in normoxia and hypoxia.

Cardio-respiratory ontogeny and the transition to bimodal respiration in an air breathing fish, the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus): Morphological and physiological development in normoxia and hypoxia.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Blank, Tara M.
Description: As selection pressures exist for not only adults, but for every life history stage, it is important to understand how environmental factors shape developing animals. Despite the significance placed on aquatic hypoxia as a driving force in the evolution of air breathing, this is the first known study to examine the effects of hypoxia on cardio-respiratory ontogeny of an air breathing fish. Blue gouramis are obligatory air breathing fish that possess a labyrinth-like structure that serves as the air breathing organ. Gouramis were reared for up to 90 d in normoxia or hypoxia, and morphological and physiological development was observed. Hypoxic larvae had increased lamellar and labyrinth organ surface areas. Bradycardia and increased gill ventilation rates were observed when larvae from either rearing group were briefly exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxic larvae also showed a reduced heart rate and gill ventilation rate in the absence of a hypoxic stimulus, possibly indicative of a more comprehensive, long-term respiratory plasticity. The similarity of routine oxygen consumption between rearing groups suggests that metabolic demand did not change for hypoxic larvae, but that they were more efficient at oxygen acquisition. This is further supported by increased resistance time of hypoxic gouramis to extreme hypoxia. The ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Metabolic, cardiac and ventilatory regulation in early larvae of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

Metabolic, cardiac and ventilatory regulation in early larvae of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Pan, Tien-Chien
Description: Early development of O2 chemoreception and hypoxic responses under normoxic (150 mmHg) and chronically hypoxic (110 mmHg) conditions were investigated in Xenopus laevis from hatching to 3 weeks post fertilization. Development, growth, O2 consumption, ventilatory and cardiac performance, and branchial neuroepithelial cells (NEC) density and size were determined. At 3 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae started gill ventilation at a rate of 28 ± 4 beats/min and showed increased frequency to 60 ± 2 beats/min at a PO2 of 30 mmHg. Also at 3 dpf, NECs were identified in the gill filament buds using immunohistochemical methods. Lung ventilation began at 5 dpf and exhibited a 3-fold increase in frequency from normoxia to a PO2 of 30 mmHg. Hypoxic tachycardia developed at 5 dpf, causing an increase of 20 beats/min in heart rate, which led to a 2-fold increase in mass-specific cardiac output at a PO2 of 70 mmHg. At 10 dpf, gill ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia increased, which was associated with the increase in NEC density, from 15 ± 1 to 29 ± 2 cells/mm of filament at 5 and 10 dpf, respectively. Unlike the elevated rate, cardiac and ventilatory volumes were independent of acute hypoxia. Despite increased cardioventilatory frequency, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Date: December 2012
Creator: Lewallen, Melissa Anjanette
Description: This study determines effects of oxygen levels on morphology and VEGF expression of developing chicken lungs following incubation in normoxia (21% O2), hypoxia (15% O2) or hyperoxia (30% O2), until developmental days 16 or 18. Lung morphology was assessed using light microscopy, while VEGF expression was determined with ELISA. In hypoxia, the proportion of parabronchial tissue and parabronchi including lumina increased from day 16 to 18 (61 to 68% and 74.2 to 82.2%, respectively). Non-parabronchial tissue was higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (26 to 20%). However, by day 18, there were no differences between groups. VEGF expression was 33% higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (736 vs. 492 pg/ml). On day 18, VEGF expression was 43% higher in hyperoxia than in normoxia (673 to 381pg/ml), and remained elevated by 40% in hypoxia over normoxia (631 pg/ml). VEGF may be a mechanism by which parabronchial tissue is stimulated from day 16 to 18 following exposure to chronic hypoxia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Role of Hypoxia in the Evolution and Development of the Cardiovascular System

Role of Hypoxia in the Evolution and Development of the Cardiovascular System

Date: 2007
Creator: Fisher, Steven A. & Burggren, Warren W.
Description: Article on the role of hypoxia in the evolution and development of the cardiovascular system.
Contributing Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences