The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

Date: September 2005
Creator: Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth
Description: The effects of global climate change from greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are diverse and potentially very large, and probably constitute the most serious long-term environmental issue currently facing the world. This paper is prepared as task 1 of the project 'Modelling support for Future Actions - Benefits and Cost of Climate Change Policies and Measures', ENV.C.2/2004/0088, led by K.U.Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The paper provides a rapid review and analysis of the impacts and economic costs from climate change. The objective is to provide estimates of the benefits of climate change policy, i.e. from avoided impacts, for support to the Commission in considering the benefits and costs of mitigation efforts, and to support DG Environment in its report to the Spring Council 2005 and in future international negotiations on climate change.
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Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks

Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks

Date: December 2002
Creator: Eurocare
Description: This document is part of Technical Report (ref: EUR 21758 EN) from the Joint Research Centre and presents part of the modelling work conducted by DG JRC/IPTS as a contribution to the DG ENV Communication on post-2012 climate policy analysis (June 2005). The analysis with the POLES and GEM-E3 models show that the costs of abatement policies, both in marginal terms and total terms, can be significantly reduced if emissions trading and project based mechanisms are used.
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Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Date: May 2003
Creator: Criqui, Patrick & Kitous, Alban
Description: This report analyze the impacts of linking JI and CDM to the future European Emission Allowance Trading System (ETSy). The result indicate that the volume of credits obtained through JI and CDM projects by the enlarged EU Emission Allowance Trading Scheme, as well as the magnitude of cost savings and allowance price impacts will crucially depend on how much competition there will be from EU Member States and other countries in JI and CDM credits.
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The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

Date: May 2000
Creator: Capros, P. & Manzos, L.
Description: In preparation of the Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union, the cost implications of EU-wide emissions trading carbon dioxide were estimated by E3-Lab with their PRIMES energy systems model. According to the report, if each EU member States implemented its target under the Burden sharing agreement individually, the total annual cost for the EU to reach the Kyoto target would be 9.0 billion Pound.
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Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report

Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report

Date: July 2009
Creator: Pulles, Tinus; Goodwin, Justin; Kruijd, Jeroen; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Janssen, Katleen; Vandenbroucke, Danny et al.
Description: The environmental policies currently being negotiated are likely to require Member State (MS) to control and report their emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants (AP) more precisely. While there are likely to be associated costs, it is also likely that the cost of timely and targeted action will be less than the longer term cost of inaction. A number of European Union (EU) legal instruments are used to regulate emissions - several of these are under review. The review not only needs to anticipate future policy needs but also assess the alignment of the various instruments and whether the burden on users can be further minimized.
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Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance

Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance

Date: October 5, 2009
Creator: United States. President (2009- : Obama)
Description: This executive order establishes sustainability and energy efficiency as priorities in the operations of the federal government.
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Analytical Audit: Annex on emissions measurements and projections

Analytical Audit: Annex on emissions measurements and projections

Date: unknown
Creator: Great Britain. Office of Climate Change
Description: This document reviews the United Kingdom's process of compiling historical greenhouse gas emissions, the process of estimating greenhouse gas emissions projections, the state of greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of these findings on the United Kingdoms domestic targets. The paper is based on analysis prepared by the Office of Climate Change in the United Kingdom in order to facilitate discussion within government departments.
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Two Degree is Too Much! Impacts of 2°C Global Warming On Antarctic Penguins

Two Degree is Too Much! Impacts of 2°C Global Warming On Antarctic Penguins

Date: October 2010
Creator: WWF Antarctic Climate Change Focal Project
Description: This research shows perennial Arctic ice is melting by nearly 10% a decade. It’s on course to disappear entirely by the end of the century. This means polar bears, walrus and seals living on the ice could become extinct. Many other Arctic species would also feel severe impacts. The fears of Inuit communities from Greenland to eastern Russia are also covered in the WWF report. Global warming puts traditional hunting and food-sharing at great risk." Sixty per cent of the tundra habitat of birds like ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers and terns could be lost in the 2°C warming scenario. Migratory birds will lose vital staging and breeding grounds, affecting biodiversity around the world. So, two degrees? It’s too much!
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Go Green Ontario’s Action Plan On Climate Change

Go Green Ontario’s Action Plan On Climate Change

Date: August 2007
Creator: Ontario Ministry of the Environment
Description: This report outlines Ontario's Go Green Action Plan for Climate Change and its five-point action plan.
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An Analysis of UNT Commuting Patterns

An Analysis of UNT Commuting Patterns

Date: May 2010
Creator: Waskey, Susan L.
Description: Academic institutions have recently organized to address their campus' greenhouse gas emissions. Along those lines, the University of North Texas (UNT) pledged to minimize the campus' environmental impact, and conducted a transportation survey in May 2009. The analyses confirm that commuting to campus was the second highest source (29%) of UNT's greenhouse gas emissions, following purchased electricity (48%). Students, faculty and staff drive over 89 million miles per year, 84% of which comes from students. Forty‐two percent of student driving trips originate in the primary and secondary core areas surrounding Denton, which are partially served by buses. However, because these core areas are in close proximity to the campus, they contribute only 8% of the total student driving distance. Beyond the Denton core, the inner periphery of Denton County contributes another 22% of driving mileage. Students living in the outer periphery (outside Denton County) contribute the remaining 70% of total driving distance, and carpooling is currently their only alternative.
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Emissions Scenarios

Emissions Scenarios

Date: 2000
Creator: Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Description: This Report describes climate change scenarios that extend to the end of the 21st century and how they were developed. The scenarios cover a wide range of the main driving forces of future emissions, from demographic to technological and economic developments. The set of emissions scenarios is based on an extensive assessment of the literature, six alternative modeling approaches, and an "open process" that solicited wide participation and feedback from many groups and individuals. The SRES scenarios include the range of emissions of all relevant species of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and sulfur and their driving forces.
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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries

Date: June 2010
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature
Description: In this position paper, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) urges Parties to reach an agreement on a REDD-plus (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) mechanism that recognizes that avoiding greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is a necessary component of achieving deep cuts.
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Interactions of the EU ETS with Green And White Certificate Schemes: European Commission Directorate-General Environment

Interactions of the EU ETS with Green And White Certificate Schemes: European Commission Directorate-General Environment

Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Description: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme ('EU ETS') began on 1 January 2005. The implementation of the EU ETS has raised interest in market-based approaches to achieving environmental and related public policy goals in the EU, particularly those related to promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Indeed, national and regional markets in tradable green certificates ('TGCs') and (to a lesser extent) tradable white certificates ('TWCs') already exist. Green certificate schemes are established or proposed in a number of Member States (e.g., Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK) and form part of a growing portfolio of measures to achieve the renewable targets outlined in Directive 2001/77/EC. White certificate schemes are considerably less widespread, although schemes have been established in Italy and the UK and further activity may be stimulated by the Commission proposal on energy services (COM(2003)739). Both the renewables Directive and the energy services proposal envisage the possible evolution and harmonisation of these instruments into EU-wide certificate schemes. This study has two major objectives: -1. Analyse interactions among EU ETS and green/white certificate markets. The first major objective is to describe the interactions between green and white certificate programmes and the EU ...
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Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Description: Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
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Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models

Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models

Date: October 2001
Creator: Institut d'Économie et de Politique de l'Énergie (France)
Description: This report presents two series of studies performed before COP-6 and COP-6bis, in order to provide DG Environment with economic analysis of the issues at stake in international climate negotiations. These analysis used the background information provided by the large scale world energy partial equilibrium model POLES. They were also based on an extensive use of the Marginal Abatement Cost Curves produced by the POLES model through the ASPEN-sd software, specifically designed to produce assessment.
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Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Date: 2010
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Description: This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
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