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Drinking Water: Key Aspects of EPA's Revolving Fund Program Needed to Be Strengthened

Drinking Water: Key Aspects of EPA's Revolving Fund Program Needed to Be Strengthened

Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that $150 billion will be needed during the next 20 years to repair, replace, and upgrade the nation's 55,000 community water systems. Congress established the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) program in 1996 to help communities finance the infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations. EPA has developed a survey to collect data on the nature and cost of infrastructure improvements needed at local water systems. EPA has taken several steps to validate the data included in its $150 billion estimate, including visits to selected sites. However the agency has yet to calculate and report on the estimate's precision. GAO found that EPA is not taking full advantage of oversight tools to monitor states' implementation of the DWSRF. First, EPA is developing financial management and other measures to monitor state progress and support agency's review of state programs. Until these draft measures are finalized and applied consistently, their usefulness as an oversight tool will be limited. Second, the untimely and inconsistent preparation of program evaluation report reviews--one of EPA's primary oversight tools--has hampered the agency's ability ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: The District of Columbia and Communities Nationwide Face Serious Challenges in Their Efforts to Safeguard Water Supplies

Drinking Water: The District of Columbia and Communities Nationwide Face Serious Challenges in Their Efforts to Safeguard Water Supplies

Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The discovery in 2004 of lead contamination in the District of Columbia's drinking water resulted in an administrative order between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the District's Water and Sewer Authority (WASA), requiring WASA to take a number of corrective actions. WASA also took additional, longer-term measures, most notably a roughly $400 million program to replace what may be 35,000 lead service lines in public space within its service area. As in WASA's case, water utilities nationwide are under increasing pressure to make significant investments to upgrade aging and deteriorating infrastructures, improve security, serve a growing population, and meet new regulatory requirements. In this context, GAO's testimony presents observations on (1) WASA's efforts to address lead contamination in light of its other pressing water infrastructure needs, and (2) the extent to which WASA's challenges are indicative of those facing water utilities nationwide. To address these issues, GAO relied primarily on its 2005 and 2006 reports on lead contamination in drinking water, as well as other recent GAO reports examining the nation's water infrastructure needs and strategies to address these needs."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Meet Increasing Program Requirements

Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Meet Increasing Program Requirements

Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the states' roles in implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act, focusing on: (1) how the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) budget requests for state program implementation compared to the amounts that are authorized and estimated to be needed; (2) how much the states have spent since the passage of the 1996 amendments to implement their drinking water programs and how their expenditures compare with estimated needs; (3) what effects federal funding levels have had, and could have in the future, on the states' ability to implement their programs; and (4) what existing practices have the potential to help the states implement their drinking water programs more effectively and efficiently."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Implement Increasing Program Requirements

Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Implement Increasing Program Requirements

Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the amounts of funding available and expended for implementing the states' drinking water programs, focusing on: (1) how the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) budget requests for the states' implementation of their drinking water programs compare with the amounts authorized and estimated to be needed; (2) how much the states have spent since the passage of the 1996 amendments to implement these programs and how the expenditures compare with the estimated needs; (3) what effects federal funding levels have had, and may have in the future, on the states' ability to implement their programs; and (4) what existing practices have the potential to help the states implement their drinking water programs more effectively and efficiently."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Safeguarding the District of Columbia's Supplies and Applying Lessons Learned to Other Systems

Drinking Water: Safeguarding the District of Columbia's Supplies and Applying Lessons Learned to Other Systems

Date: July 22, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns have been raised about lead in District of Columbia drinking water and how those charged with ensuring the safety of this water have carried out their responsibilities. The 1991 Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requires water systems to protect drinking water from lead by, among other things, chemically treating it to reduce its corrosiveness and by monitoring tap water samples for evidence of lead corrosion. If enough samples show corrosion, water systems officials are required to notify and educate the public on lead health risks and undertake additional efforts. The Washington Aqueduct, owned and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, treats and sells water to the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (WASA), which delivers water to D.C. residents. EPA's Philadelphia Office is charged with overseeing these agencies. GAO is examining (1) the current structure and level of coordination among key government entities that implement the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations for lead in the District of Columbia, (2) how other drinking water systems conducted public notification and outreach, (3) the availability of data necessary to determine which adult and child populations are at ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security

Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security

Date: October 31, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "After the events of September 11, 2001, Congress appropriated over $100 million to help drinking water systems assess their vulnerabilities to terrorist threats and develop response plans. As the Environmental Protection Agency has suggested, however, significant additional funds may be needed to support the implementation of security upgrades. Therefore, GAO sought experts' views on (1) the key security-related vulnerabilities of drinking water systems; (2) the criteria for determining how federal funds should be allocated among drinking water systems to improve their security, and the methods for distributing those funds; and (3) specific activities the federal government should support to improve drinking water security. GAO conducted a systematic Webbased survey of 43 nationally recognized experts to seek consensus on these key drinking water security issues."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Revisions to EPA's Cost Analysis for the Radon Rule Would Improve Its Credibility and Usefulness

Drinking Water: Revisions to EPA's Cost Analysis for the Radon Rule Would Improve Its Credibility and Usefulness

Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Safe Drinking Water Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a drinking water standard for radon. In a proposed rule issued in November 1999, EPA presented a unique and complex drinking water regulation for radon. GAO found that EPA's analysis of the costs to implement the proposed radon rule has several strengths. EPA's estimates of the typical costs for water systems to buy and install radon removal technologies--a key determinant of total national costs--are reasonable for estimating national compliance costs. Moreover, EPA used recommendations from an expert panel to estimate the costs to install and maintain radon removal equipment. EPA also developed a range of annual cost estimates, rather than a single estimate, to account for uncertainty about the extent to which the less costly alternative standard will be adopted by states. EPA's analysis of the national annual costs to comply with its proposed radon drinking water rule has several limitations that, if corrected, would likely increase EPA's best estimate of these costs. EPA made two errors in estimating the various costs associated with programs to reduce radon levels in indoor air under ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water Management Act

Drinking Water Management Act

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: China (Republic : 1949- ). Huan jing bao hu shu
Description: This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to safeguard public health by protecting drinking water resources from pollution by dumping, logging, industry, nuclear waste, ranching, recreation, mineral exploration and extraction, transportation, and other activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Appropriate Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid Areas: Workshop : Summary Report

Appropriate Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid Areas: Workshop : Summary Report

Date: June 1987
Creator: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
Description: The main purpose of the meeting was to review progress in the development of technologies for making optimum use of limited water resources or using conditions of drought and solar radiation to disinfect ferment-able wastes and destroy microorganisms contained in them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Public Health Service Act

Public Health Service Act

Date: 1974
Creator: United States. Congress
Description: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources. The Act authorizes EPA to establish minimum standards to protect tap water and requires all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with these primary (health-related) standards. The 1996 amendments to SDWA require that EPA consider a detailed risk and cost assessment, and best available peer-reviewed science, when developing these standards. State governments, which can be approved to implement these rules for EPA, also encourage attainment of secondary standards (nuisance-related). Under the Act, EPA also establishes minimum standards for state programs to protect underground sources of drinking water from endangerment by underground injection of fluids.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Algae in water supplies: an illustrated manual on the identification, significance, and control of algae in water supplies.

Algae in water supplies: an illustrated manual on the identification, significance, and control of algae in water supplies.

Date: 1959
Creator: Palmer, Charles Mervin, 1900-
Description: A manual designed to help "water analysts and others who deal with the many problems and effects associated with the presence of algae in water supplies."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Unreliable State Data Limit EPA's Ability to Target Enforcement Priorities and Communicate Water Systems' Performance

Drinking Water: Unreliable State Data Limit EPA's Ability to Target Enforcement Priorities and Communicate Water Systems' Performance

Date: June 17, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The nation's drinking water is among the safest in the world, but contamination has occurred, causing illnesses and even deaths. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has authorized most states, territories, and tribes to take primary responsibility for ensuring that community water systems provide safe water. EPA needs complete and accurate data on systems' compliance with SDWA to conduct oversight. GAO was asked to assess the (1) quality of the state data EPA uses to measure compliance with health and monitoring requirements of the act and the status of enforcement efforts, (2) ways in which data quality could affect EPA's management of the drinking water program, and (3) actions EPA and the states have been taking to improve data quality. GAO analyzed EPA audits of state data done in 2007, 2008, and 2009, and surveyed EPA and state officials to obtain their views on factors that have affected data quality and steps that could improve it."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: EPA Should Strengthen Ongoing Efforts to Ensure That Consumers Are Protected from Lead Contamination

Drinking Water: EPA Should Strengthen Ongoing Efforts to Ensure That Consumers Are Protected from Lead Contamination

Date: January 4, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Elevated lead levels in the District of Columbia's tap water in 2003 prompted questions about how well consumers are protected nationwide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), states, and local water systems share responsibility for providing safe drinking water. Lead typically enters tap water as a result of the corrosion of lead in the water lines or household plumbing. EPA's lead rule establishes testing and treatment requirements. This report discusses (1) EPA's data on the rule's implementation; (2) what implementation of the rule suggests about the need for changes to the regulatory framework; and (3) the extent to which drinking water at schools and child care facilities is tested for lead."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: EPA Has Improved Its Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program, but Additional Action Is Needed

Drinking Water: EPA Has Improved Its Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program, but Additional Action Is Needed

Date: January 9, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented all of the recommendations GAO made in its May 2011 report to improve the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) program. In that report, GAO recommended that EPA (1) monitor for the full 30 contaminants allowed by statute, (2) monitor for most or all contaminants using a more robust monitoring approach, and (3) select sufficiently sensitive minimum reporting levels (MRL) for monitoring contaminants. EPA now requires public water systems to monitor for 30 contaminants in the UCMR3 program, using its most robust monitoring approach for a majority of these contaminants, and setting MRLs as low as can be reliably measured, according to EPA. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires EPA to vary the monitoring frequency based on the type of contaminant likely to be found, but EPA used a standard monitoring frequency for all contaminants. This may result in inaccurate estimates of the occurrence of sporadically occurring microbes (e.g., viruses) or pesticides, according to experts GAO surveyed and studies it reviewed. In such cases, the monitoring data may not provide reliable estimates of contaminant occurrence."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent To Improve Security

Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent To Improve Security

Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "After the events of September 11, 2001, Congress appropriated over $140 million to help drinking water systems assess their vulnerabilities to terrorist threats and to develop response plans. Utilities are asking for additional funding, however, not only to plan security upgrades but also to support their implementation. This testimony is based on GAO's report, Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security (GAO-04-29, October 31, 2003). Specifically, GAO sought experts' views on (1) the key security-related vulnerabilities affecting drinking water systems, (2) the criteria for determining how federal funds are allocated among drinking water systems to improve their security, and the methods by which those funds should be distributed, and (3) specific activities the federal government should support to improve drinking water security."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Is in our Drinking Water?

What Is in our Drinking Water?

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Poole, Coresa & Eve, Susan Brown
Description: Poster presentation for the 2012 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on what is in our drinking water.
Contributing Partner: UNT Honors College
Experiment Station Work, [Volume] 17

Experiment Station Work, [Volume] 17

Date: 1901
Creator: United States. Office of Experiment Stations.
Description: Bulletin issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture compiling selected articles from the Agricultural Experiment Stations. This bulletin contains articles on: Distilled Drinking Water, Soil Inoculation, Treatment of Sandy Soils, Lime as a Fertilizer, Fertilizers for Market-Garden Crops, Pecan Culture, Weed Destruction, Maple Syrup and Sugar, Value of Cotton Seed, Alfalfa Silage, Forage Crops for Pigs, Grazing Steers, and Type of the Dairy Cow.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farmstead water supply.

Farmstead water supply.

Date: June 1933
Creator: Warren, George M. (George Milton)
Description: Discusses the importance of a well-planned water system for the farm home. Describes methods for pumping, filtering, and storing water on the farm.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
[News Script: Water]

[News Script: Water]

Date: August 19, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about public wells being opened in Dallas.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
[News Script: Pumpers Won't Drink Dallas Type Water]

[News Script: Pumpers Won't Drink Dallas Type Water]

Date: September 7, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the salty drinking water in Dallas, which comes from the Red River.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
[News Script: Water]

[News Script: Water]

Date: August 2, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the foul taste of the water from White Rock Lake.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
[News Clip: Water]

[News Clip: Water]

Date: August 19, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Video footage from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story about public wells being opened in Dallas. The video shows people filling jugs and buckets up with the soft water.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
[News Clip: Tree-Watering Device, Student Pilot Dies When Plane Crashes, News Briefs -- Patty, Pumpers Won't Drink Dallas Tap Water, Sonny Evans, Democrats, Gorilla]

[News Clip: Tree-Watering Device, Student Pilot Dies When Plane Crashes, News Briefs -- Patty, Pumpers Won't Drink Dallas Tap Water, Sonny Evans, Democrats, Gorilla]

Date: September 7, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Video footage from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story about a homemade tree-saving device, created by Fort Worth police detective T. M. Wood; Captain Charles Walker, a student pilot from Perrin Air Force Base, who crashed his T-33 jet training plane and died; the brief appearance of singer Patty Page in Dallas, Texas, en route to marry movie director Charles O'Curran; the salty drinking water in Dallas, which comes from the Red River; the arrest of teenager Sonny Evans, who was found in a car near the scene of a tavern where somebody had torn off the back screen, supposedly in a burglary effort; disagreements between conservative democrats and liberal democrats in Fort Worth; and the arrival of a 16-pound baby girl gorilla, from New York, at Forest Park Zoo in Fort Worth, Texas.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
[News Clip: Water, Refugee]

[News Clip: Water, Refugee]

Date: August 2, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Description: Video footage from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story about the foul taste of the water from White Rock Lake. The footage also includes a story about a survivor of the Andrea Doria ship disaster and a refugee from Casablanca, Morocco, named Myriam Dahan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections