Drinking Water: Key Aspects of EPA's Revolving Fund Program Needed to Be Strengthened

Drinking Water: Key Aspects of EPA's Revolving Fund Program Needed to Be Strengthened

Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that $150 billion will be needed during the next 20 years to repair, replace, and upgrade the nation's 55,000 community water systems. Congress established the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) program in 1996 to help communities finance the infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations. EPA has developed a survey to collect data on the nature and cost of infrastructure improvements needed at local water systems. EPA has taken several steps to validate the data included in its $150 billion estimate, including visits to selected sites. However the agency has yet to calculate and report on the estimate's precision. GAO found that EPA is not taking full advantage of oversight tools to monitor states' implementation of the DWSRF. First, EPA is developing financial management and other measures to monitor state progress and support agency's review of state programs. Until these draft measures are finalized and applied consistently, their usefulness as an oversight tool will be limited. Second, the untimely and inconsistent preparation of program evaluation report reviews--one of EPA's primary oversight tools--has hampered the agency's ability ...
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Drinking Water: The District of Columbia and Communities Nationwide Face Serious Challenges in Their Efforts to Safeguard Water Supplies

Drinking Water: The District of Columbia and Communities Nationwide Face Serious Challenges in Their Efforts to Safeguard Water Supplies

Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The discovery in 2004 of lead contamination in the District of Columbia's drinking water resulted in an administrative order between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the District's Water and Sewer Authority (WASA), requiring WASA to take a number of corrective actions. WASA also took additional, longer-term measures, most notably a roughly $400 million program to replace what may be 35,000 lead service lines in public space within its service area. As in WASA's case, water utilities nationwide are under increasing pressure to make significant investments to upgrade aging and deteriorating infrastructures, improve security, serve a growing population, and meet new regulatory requirements. In this context, GAO's testimony presents observations on (1) WASA's efforts to address lead contamination in light of its other pressing water infrastructure needs, and (2) the extent to which WASA's challenges are indicative of those facing water utilities nationwide. To address these issues, GAO relied primarily on its 2005 and 2006 reports on lead contamination in drinking water, as well as other recent GAO reports examining the nation's water infrastructure needs and strategies to address these needs."
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Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Meet Increasing Program Requirements

Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Meet Increasing Program Requirements

Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the states' roles in implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act, focusing on: (1) how the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) budget requests for state program implementation compared to the amounts that are authorized and estimated to be needed; (2) how much the states have spent since the passage of the 1996 amendments to implement their drinking water programs and how their expenditures compare with estimated needs; (3) what effects federal funding levels have had, and could have in the future, on the states' ability to implement their programs; and (4) what existing practices have the potential to help the states implement their drinking water programs more effectively and efficiently."
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Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Implement Increasing Program Requirements

Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Implement Increasing Program Requirements

Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the amounts of funding available and expended for implementing the states' drinking water programs, focusing on: (1) how the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) budget requests for the states' implementation of their drinking water programs compare with the amounts authorized and estimated to be needed; (2) how much the states have spent since the passage of the 1996 amendments to implement these programs and how the expenditures compare with the estimated needs; (3) what effects federal funding levels have had, and may have in the future, on the states' ability to implement their programs; and (4) what existing practices have the potential to help the states implement their drinking water programs more effectively and efficiently."
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Drinking Water: Safeguarding the District of Columbia's Supplies and Applying Lessons Learned to Other Systems

Drinking Water: Safeguarding the District of Columbia's Supplies and Applying Lessons Learned to Other Systems

Date: July 22, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns have been raised about lead in District of Columbia drinking water and how those charged with ensuring the safety of this water have carried out their responsibilities. The 1991 Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requires water systems to protect drinking water from lead by, among other things, chemically treating it to reduce its corrosiveness and by monitoring tap water samples for evidence of lead corrosion. If enough samples show corrosion, water systems officials are required to notify and educate the public on lead health risks and undertake additional efforts. The Washington Aqueduct, owned and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, treats and sells water to the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (WASA), which delivers water to D.C. residents. EPA's Philadelphia Office is charged with overseeing these agencies. GAO is examining (1) the current structure and level of coordination among key government entities that implement the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations for lead in the District of Columbia, (2) how other drinking water systems conducted public notification and outreach, (3) the availability of data necessary to determine which adult and child populations are at ...
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Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security

Drinking Water: Experts' Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security

Date: October 31, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "After the events of September 11, 2001, Congress appropriated over $100 million to help drinking water systems assess their vulnerabilities to terrorist threats and develop response plans. As the Environmental Protection Agency has suggested, however, significant additional funds may be needed to support the implementation of security upgrades. Therefore, GAO sought experts' views on (1) the key security-related vulnerabilities of drinking water systems; (2) the criteria for determining how federal funds should be allocated among drinking water systems to improve their security, and the methods for distributing those funds; and (3) specific activities the federal government should support to improve drinking water security. GAO conducted a systematic Webbased survey of 43 nationally recognized experts to seek consensus on these key drinking water security issues."
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Drinking Water: Revisions to EPA's Cost Analysis for the Radon Rule Would Improve Its Credibility and Usefulness

Drinking Water: Revisions to EPA's Cost Analysis for the Radon Rule Would Improve Its Credibility and Usefulness

Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Safe Drinking Water Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a drinking water standard for radon. In a proposed rule issued in November 1999, EPA presented a unique and complex drinking water regulation for radon. GAO found that EPA's analysis of the costs to implement the proposed radon rule has several strengths. EPA's estimates of the typical costs for water systems to buy and install radon removal technologies--a key determinant of total national costs--are reasonable for estimating national compliance costs. Moreover, EPA used recommendations from an expert panel to estimate the costs to install and maintain radon removal equipment. EPA also developed a range of annual cost estimates, rather than a single estimate, to account for uncertainty about the extent to which the less costly alternative standard will be adopted by states. EPA's analysis of the national annual costs to comply with its proposed radon drinking water rule has several limitations that, if corrected, would likely increase EPA's best estimate of these costs. EPA made two errors in estimating the various costs associated with programs to reduce radon levels in indoor air under ...
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Drinking Water Management Act

Drinking Water Management Act

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: China (Republic : 1949- ). Huan jing bao hu shu
Description: This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to safeguard public health by protecting drinking water resources from pollution by dumping, logging, industry, nuclear waste, ranching, recreation, mineral exploration and extraction, transportation, and other activities.
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Experiment Station Work, [Volume] 17

Experiment Station Work, [Volume] 17

Date: 1901
Creator: United States. Office of Experiment Stations.
Description: Bulletin issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture compiling selected articles from the Agricultural Experiment Stations. This bulletin contains articles on: Distilled Drinking Water, Soil Inoculation, Treatment of Sandy Soils, Lime as a Fertilizer, Fertilizers for Market-Garden Crops, Pecan Culture, Weed Destruction, Maple Syrup and Sugar, Value of Cotton Seed, Alfalfa Silage, Forage Crops for Pigs, Grazing Steers, and Type of the Dairy Cow.
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Appropriate Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid Areas: Workshop : Summary Report

Appropriate Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid Areas: Workshop : Summary Report

Date: June 1987
Creator: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
Description: The main purpose of the meeting was to review progress in the development of technologies for making optimum use of limited water resources or using conditions of drought and solar radiation to disinfect ferment-able wastes and destroy microorganisms contained in them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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