A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

Date: August 2002
Creator: Joshua, Michelle D.
Description: It has only been in recent years that eating disorder researchers have begun focusing on sexual orientation as a variable that may affect prevalence rates. Heeding the call for studies that extend beyond identification of fixed eating disorder risk factors (e.g., gender), this study was designed to explore factors that contribute to the development of disordered eating among lesbians. In this study, a hypothesized Lesbian Model of Disordered Eating was tested using structural equation modeling. Lesbian Sexual Identity and Social Supports were hypothesized to positively influence Psychological Health. In addition, Internalization of U.S. Societal Norms of beauty and attractiveness was hypothesized to negatively affect Psychological Health. Psychological Health, in turn, was hypothesized to negatively influence Body Image Concerns. Body Image Concerns was then hypothesized to positively affect Disordered Eating. The fit of the model was evaluated and one of the hypothesized pathways, Internalization of Norms was moved to directly predict Body Image Concerns. After adjusting the model, the model accounted for 54% of the variance in disordered eating. Most notably, the results highlight the potential affects of adopting a positive lesbian identity on disordered eating and underscore the importance of including sexual identity as a demographic variable in studies of ...
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The Relationship of Actual Stature to Height of Human Figure Drawings

The Relationship of Actual Stature to Height of Human Figure Drawings

Date: January 1969
Creator: Burnett, Donald E.
Description: One purpose of this study was to determine of the actual physical dimensions of an individual are related to the dimensions of his human figure drawings. The specific physical dimension used in this study is that of stature of height. Another purpose of this study was to determine if college males majoring in Physical Education might be superior to college males majoring in Industrial Arts in terms of their clarity of body image.
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The Effects of Multisensory Perceptual Training on Reading and Perceptual Development at the First-Grade Level

The Effects of Multisensory Perceptual Training on Reading and Perceptual Development at the First-Grade Level

Date: 1969
Creator: Nichols, Edith E.
Description: This was a study designed to investigate the effects of three independent variables in first-grade reading instruction on reading achievement and perceptual development. The independent variables included initial readiness level, type of instructional method, and sex of pupil. The major purpose of this study was to use an experimental setting to determine the relative effects of a multi-sensory perceptual training program combined with a basal-instruction program, as contrasted to an entirely conventional basal-reading program, on first-grade reading achievement and perceptual development during a school year.
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An Experimental Technique for the Objective Quantification of Body-Image Distortion

An Experimental Technique for the Objective Quantification of Body-Image Distortion

Date: July 1971
Creator: Lemon, James M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental technique to objectively measure the deviation between an individual's perception of his body image and his actual image. In addition, this technique was utilized to compare the accuracy of perception of body image between institutionalized and non-institutionalized individuals. Half of each subject category was also compared in terms of performance on an additional perceptual task unrelated to body image.
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The Disney Influence on Kindergarten Girls' Body Image

The Disney Influence on Kindergarten Girls' Body Image

Date: May 2013
Creator: Asawarachan, Tanawan
Description: Media is now a part of the early childhood world. In many countries, including industrialized and developing countries, children spend more time consuming various kinds of media. The impact of media on children's perception of their body images has been and continues to be a concern of parents and early childhood professionals. This research examined the influence of Disney movies on Thai kindergarten girls' body images and self-esteem. Thai kindergarten girls completed three measures of body self-image: the Body Figure Preference Scale, the Body Esteem Scale, and the Self-Esteem Scale. The girl participants were randomly assigned to two groups: focused on a female theme (FFT) and focused on a non-human theme (FNT). The experimental group viewed "female" Disney movie themes, while the control group viewed "animal" Disney movie themes. Girls in the experimental group expressed greater body image dissatisfaction scores after watching Disney movies, which was an expected finding. Results from the present study suggest that girls in both groups become concerned about their body esteem after video exposure. However, there was no significant difference in self-esteem between girls in FFT and FNT. In summary, the findings of this study support the belief that Disney movies influence young girls' perceptions ...
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Breast implants for graduation? Parent and adolescent narratives.

Breast implants for graduation? Parent and adolescent narratives.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Fowler, Lori Ann
Description: The purpose of this research is to examine through sociological and psychological theories how women make sense of the desire and attainment of breast implants for graduation. The study used a qualitative approach and focused on women ages 18-35 in the state of Texas who have received breast implants for graduation. The sample size in this study included 10 high-school graduates receiving implants as a gift and their 10 mothers. Seven theoretical paradigms provided a better understanding for why the daughters asked for breast implants and why the parent(s) paid for them. Symbolic interaction theory explained why the daughters wished to replace their "fake" cotton padded self with their augmented self, to become the most authentic woman possible. Social construction of reality theory explained why both mothers and daughters wanted to conform to the social construction of gender, and to accomplish their gender well. Conspicuous consumption theory demonstrated how cosmetic surgery practices allow women to appear wealthy, gain status, and "flash" their assets. Feminist theory explained why some women were motivated to capture the attention of men and others altered the body out of empowerment. Reference group and social comparison theories explained how the women in this study were influenced ...
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Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences as Predictors of Family Relationships and Body Image Dissatisfaction in African American, Hispanic American, and European American Women

Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences as Predictors of Family Relationships and Body Image Dissatisfaction in African American, Hispanic American, and European American Women

Date: December 2006
Creator: Garcia-Rea, Elizabeth Ann
Description: Ethnic differences in etiological factors linked to body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders were examined. In addition, the interaction of acculturation and body image dissatisfaction in influencing minority women's relationships with their parents was investigated. Participants consisted of 302 undergraduates from three ethnic groups: Caucasian, Hispanic American, and African American women who were administered self-report measures. Differences were not found between the groups in body image dissatisfaction. Low self-esteem, internalization of the thin ideal, and family emphasis on weight and appearance were all related to more body image dissatisfaction for each of these groups; however, differences in degree of endorsement were also noted between the ethnic groups on these factors. Based on the interaction findings (body image x acculturation) separation from one's mother was found in the area of attitudes and emotions for the Hispanic sample but not for the African American sample on any of the parent scales. Areas for future research and implications for diagnosis and treatment of minority populations are also discussed.
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Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Boyer, Elizabeth M.
Description: Recent research has suggested that the effects of sport on well-being are mediated by psychological characteristics such as physical self-concept, instrumentality and positive body images; in addition, sport was found to be related to these psychological benefits for high school girls. However, physical self-concept played a central role by mediating the sport -body image and sport instrumentality relationships. Positive body image and instrumentality, in turn, predicted greater psychological well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate earlier studies, and to examine these relationships with non-sport physical activity. Sport and physical activity were expected to contribute to higher physical self-concept, which in turn, would contribute positively to instrumentality and body image. Further, instrumentality and body image would be positively related to psychological well-being. Participants were 355 9th (n = 170) and 10th (n = 193) graders and they completed measures of involvement in sport/physical activities, physical self-concept, instrumentality, body satisfaction, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, depression, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the data. Overall, for both sport and physical activity, the models fit the data well (sport model: NNFI=.95, CFI=.96, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09, physical activity model: NNFI=.96, CFI=.97, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09). Specifically, sport participation was positively related to physical ...
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The Effects of Brief Exposure to Non Traditional Media Messages on Female Body Image

The Effects of Brief Exposure to Non Traditional Media Messages on Female Body Image

Date: August 1999
Creator: Garber, Carla F.
Description: Body image may be defined as the perception or attitude one has regarding the appearance of his or her body. Body image concerns are not only central to the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders, but also create distress for nonclinical populations. Females (n = 167) from three universities participated in a study by completing the Eating Disorder Inventory - 2 (Garner, 1991) and the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schulsinger, 1983); watching a video; and then completing the instruments again. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 89) viewed a video designed to increase awareness of unrealistic body sizes and shapes seen in the media (Kilbourne, 1995). Subjects in the comparison group (n = 77) viewed a video unrelated to female body image.
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Father Absence, Onset of Menarche, and Body Dissatisfaction: Importance of Father Absence

Father Absence, Onset of Menarche, and Body Dissatisfaction: Importance of Father Absence

Date: August 1999
Creator: Gartrell, Stacey R.
Description: Relationships between body dissatisfaction, dieting methods, father absence, and puberty timing were investigated in this study. Participants included adolescent females from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression results indicated that girls without a biological father in the home were significantly more likely to have an early onset of puberty than on-time or late. Girls who experienced early puberty exhibited higher levels of body dissatisfaction, but didn't use more dieting methods. Early onset girls more likely used dieting methods if their biological father was present than absent; however, no significant difference in body dissatisfaction was shown. A negative relationship with fathers indicated more body dissatisfaction. None of the attained findings were found when the biological mother was absent, and having a stepfather did not seem to matter. Evidence was revealed that fathers play a role in their daughters' view of their own bodies.
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