The Effects of Interspersed Trials and Density of Reinforcement on Accuracy, Looking Away, and Self-injurious Behavior of a Child with Autism

The Effects of Interspersed Trials and Density of Reinforcement on Accuracy, Looking Away, and Self-injurious Behavior of a Child with Autism

Date: May 2000
Creator: Ybarra, Rita
Description: This research examines the effects of task interspersal and density of reinforcement on several behaviors of an autistic 6-year-old boy during the performance of a visual matching task and two auditory matching tasks. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of interspersing high and low accuracy tasks on correct matching responses, positions of matching responses, looking away, and self-injurious behavior (SIB). The effects of interspersed trials were evaluated using an ABAB multiple treatments design. Results indicated that interspersed trials produced slightly more correct responses during the visual matching task; however, correct responses decreased during the other two tasks. The use of interspersed trials also decreased looking away from the stimuli and SIB. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of reinforcement density apart from task interspersal. Two conditions, reinforce-corrects-only and reinforce-all-responses, were compared in Experiment 2. Correct responses increased slightly for all three tasks during the reinforce-all-responses condition. Looking away and SIB were very infrequent throughout Experiment 2.
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A Measurement System for Monitoring Play in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

A Measurement System for Monitoring Play in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

Date: May 2002
Creator: Gudmundsdottir, Kristin
Description: A comprehensive measurement system was developed to monitor play in children with autism and typically developing children. The study was conducted in a preschool operated in conjunction with a center-based program for children with autism. The development of the measurement system was based on observations of four children with autism and three typically developing children during social and play activites. Data were collected on material use and several dimensions of play: Simple Manipulation, Functional Manipulation, Symbolic Toy Play, Symbolic Role Play and Play Themes. The results indicated that the measurement system consistently measured a wide range of play behaviors across children and materials. Significance of the information gathered from the measurement system in assessing play and designing interventions is discussed.
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The effects of priming and contingent attention on novel play episodes in a child with autism

The effects of priming and contingent attention on novel play episodes in a child with autism

Date: August 2002
Creator: Josendale, Julianne R.
Description: This study evaluated the effects of priming and contingent attention procedures on play variability in a child with autism. During baseline, numbers of novel play episodes, different play episodes, and actions occurred at low rates. Priming procedures did not produce desired change. When contingent attention was implemented, significant increases occurred in novel play episodes, different actions, and different play episodes. These results show that attention contingent on variable play episodes can increase the number of novel responses to play materials. The results are discussed within the context of treatment and future research.
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Shaping: From art to science.

Shaping: From art to science.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Schooley, Kathryne Balch
Description: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a procedure for teaching a caregiver to shape vocal language in a young child with autism. A multiple baseline design was employed to assess caregiver use of shaping procedures, child vocal language progress, and the social validity of the procedures. Following baseline and introductory sessions, the coach and caregiver reviewed video from the previous session and the coach gave descriptive feedback to the caregiver about her performance. Following the review of the videotaped segment, procedures to increase skills were selected and practiced. Rates of responsive opportunity arrangement, model presentation, responsive model delivery, and responsive event delivery, as well as the child's rate of requests, vocalizations, diversity of vocalizations, and social validity were measured. Data suggested that the procedures effectively taught the skill of shaping to a caregiver, which in turn seemed to produce increases in the child's vocal responding.
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The effects of two types of consequence delivery on task acquisition.

The effects of two types of consequence delivery on task acquisition.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Jenkins, Juliet
Description: The effects of two consequence delivery methods on task acquisition were evaluated within a multi-element design. A typical 3 year-old child and a 4 year-old child with autism participated in this study. The task for both children was to select a picture after the experimenter said its name. The consequence in one condition consisted of the experimenter handing the edible item to the children. The consequence in the other condition consisted of the children retrieving the edible item directly from the apparatus, located in a crevice underneath each picture. Results show slightly quicker acquisition in the condition where children retrieved the edible consequence. However, it is possible that other variables had greater influence on the task acquisition.
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Teaching Two Children with Autism to Follow a Computer-Mediated Activity Schedule Utilizing Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation Software

Teaching Two Children with Autism to Follow a Computer-Mediated Activity Schedule Utilizing Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation Software

Date: August 2005
Creator: Carmichael, Tammy
Description: Children with autism typically exhibit deficits in behavior and also in visual processing. Development and implementation of visually-cued instructional procedures, combined with electronic technology, have been used successfully to teach children with autism complex behavior chains. This study used photographic activity schedules on computer slideshow software to teach two children with autism to follow computer-mediated cues and engage in four play activities, and to transition between each activity in their homes without the presence of a trained behavior therapist. Results of this study demonstrated that these technologies can be utilized in children's homes to promote computer-mediated play behavior while eliminating the necessary cost of a home behavior therapist to prompt and supervise such activities.
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Evaluation of a Training Package for Teaching Social Skills in an Inclusionary Preschool Environment

Evaluation of a Training Package for Teaching Social Skills in an Inclusionary Preschool Environment

Date: August 2005
Creator: Haycraft, Carrie H.
Description: Effective training procedures are necessary when teaching behavior analytic techniques because the techniques are so complex and precise; and there is a correlation between the changed skills in the trainees to be beneficial to the client. Instructors who may previously exhibit effective teaching techniques in a one-to-one setting may not exhibit those techniques in an inclusive setting. This study examines the effects of a training package and an instruction on the performance of experienced instructors, and desired responding from both preschool-aged children with autism and typically developing peers. The training took place with 3 triads of one instructor, one child with autism, and one peer in a center-based inclusionary preschool. Instructor skills targeted were prompt and consequence delivery for the target social skills, getting attention and responding to peers. Corroborative data on children's responding were obtained.
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Assessing optimal sibling training conditions: An empirical approach.

Assessing optimal sibling training conditions: An empirical approach.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Merker, Stephanie K.
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of play materials on the interactions between a child with autism and her sibling. Three conditions were assessed: open choice, materials chosen by the child with autism, and materials chosen by the typically developing sibling. Within each activity, measures of social interactions were assessed. Results of the assessment showed that more interactions occurred with a material chosen by the child with autism. After sibling training (targeting specific teaching skills), social interactions remained highest in the condition with materials chosen by the child with autism. The results are discussed in terms of a material assessment to optimize sibling training conditions and the importance of sibling relationships.
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The effects of rate contingent consequences and charting on response rates for two children with autism.

The effects of rate contingent consequences and charting on response rates for two children with autism.

Date: May 2004
Creator: Berman, Christine M.
Description: This study investigated the effects of a precision teaching package on response rates of children with autism. Prior to both experiments a preference assessment was conducted to identify high preference activities for each participant. Experiment 1 investigated whether response rates would shift as a function of rate-contingent consequences during an academic task. Different activities were associated with different rates of responding. The experimental package of 1 minute timings, rate contingent consequences, and charting was successful in increasing the rates of responding when the most highly preferred activity was associated with high rates of responding. When the contingencies were switched and the most highly preferred activity was contingent on lower rates of responding, the participant's responding did not decrease. Experiment 2 was an attempt to replicate the results of Experiment 1 using a multiple baseline across tasks. The experimental package was not successful in increasing the rate of responding.
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Perceptions of parents of students with autism towards the IEP meeting.

Perceptions of parents of students with autism towards the IEP meeting.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Fish, Wade W.
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate how parents of students with autism perceived individualized education program (IEP) meetings. I determined factors that contributed to the belief held by parents that their children were or were not being properly served by IEP meetings. Parental relationships with educators, IEP meeting experiences, IEP outcomes, and treatment by educators were revealed through participant input. Parents were asked to share their experiences of previous IEP meetings. Additionally, parents provided input regarding practices that school districts could take to improve IEP meetings, and actions that parents could take to serve as better advocates for their children. Research findings indicated that parents did not perceive themselves as being treated as equals during IEP meetings. Parents believed that their input was not valued or welcomed by educators. Not having an equal voice toward their child's education prevented parents from positively influencing outcomes in their child's IEP meetings in terms of obtaining quality services and building positive relations with educators. Parents further revealed that educators failed to implement proper IEP protocol. According to parents, student objectives agreed upon in IEP meetings were often not always fully implemented for students receiving special education services. Research findings concluded that ...
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