Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilson, Jennifer L.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of women's anger and religiosity on their expression of violence toward their partner. The sample consisted of the 664 women who completed three interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women, a study of low-income, ethnically diverse women in Dallas county. Across the waves, women completed measures of relationship violence, anger, and religiosity. Religiosity was not found to moderate the relationship between women's anger and their use of violence. When partners' threats and violence were included in the regression equations, these variables were consistently related to women's behavior. Due to several methodological limitations, clinical implications of the results should be considered with caution.
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Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior

Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Barrett, Susan
Description: The influences of family relationship variables on motivations for adolescent sexual risk-taking were investigated. Previous research has linked these variables to adolescent sexual behavior, however, the nature of these links has not been specifically examined. Family variables were operationalized as child attachment to mother, parental support of each other, parental conflict strategies, and parental monitoring. Emotional motivations were operationalized as attachment and affiliation needs. The sample consisted of 40 single females ages 18 to22 recruited from a local pregnancy care center. Predictions that parent-child relationship and parental influence would predict emotional motivations for sexual risk-taking were not supported. The variable most highly related to sexual risk-taking, though not included in the model tested, was father's destructive conflict strategies. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.
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Relationship of Internal-External Locus of Control and Performance in a Weight-Control Program

Relationship of Internal-External Locus of Control and Performance in a Weight-Control Program

Date: August 1974
Creator: Thomas, Bruce M.
Description: This study explores the relationship between internal-external locus of control and some characteristics of overweight subjects in a weight-control program in the summer and fall of 1973. Only white, female, over-weight, and obese subjects were used. From this study, it appears that Rotter's I-E concept applies to weight loss. This one significant finding lends support to research that internals control their impulses better than externals and that internals seem to learn and retain relevant information better than externals.
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Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study

Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study

Date: December 1998
Creator: Abbassi, Amir
Description: By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test(ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels.
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Anticipating Work and Family: Experience, Conflict, and Planning in the Transition to Adulthood

Anticipating Work and Family: Experience, Conflict, and Planning in the Transition to Adulthood

Date: August 2011
Creator: Campbell, Elizabeth L.
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the development of work and family plans in young adults, and to clarify the long-term stability, prevalence, and consequences of anticipated work-family conflict. The study utilizes Super’s model of career development and social cognitive career theory, as well as research on current work-family interface, as a framework for understanding the period of anticipating and planning for multiple role integration that occurs between adolescence and adulthood. A sample of 48 male and 52 female college students assessed two years prior completed self-report questionnaires measuring work, marriage, and parenting experience; anticipated work-family conflict; and multiple-role planning. Results of this study suggest that students desire both a career and a family, and recognize potential challenges of a multiple-role lifestyle. Such recognition of anticipated work-family conflict varies by conflict domains and measurement methods, but remains stable over two years. Results also suggest that anticipated work-family conflict does not mediate the relationship between experience and planning; instead, marriage experience predicts planning directly. Implications for the findings are discussed as are suggestions for directions of new research concerning anticipated work-family conflict and planning for multiple roles.
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The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory

The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory

Date: August 2004
Creator: Lahner, Jessica M.
Description: The present study compared the career development concerns and other vocationally relevant variables of employees of organizations who have and have not engaged in downsizing within a one year timeframe. The sample consisted of 162 participants, 72 layoff survivors (those who remained in an organization after its downsizing) and 92 non-survivors (employees in organizations who have not downsized within 12 months). Significant results were found that differentiated the career related experiences of participants in the survivors group, survivors from non-survivors, and participants in general regardless of survivorship status. In general, results indicated that non-survivors reported greater job satisfaction and job security than layoff survivors, that being married with children may increase job satisfaction, and social support may buffer the grief reactions that survivors have to the loss of their co-worker friends. Furthermore, Super's age-associated stages within the Life-Span, Life-Space Theory were moderately upheld in the sample, especially for the Exploration stage. However, younger workers demonstrated more Maintenance concerns that would be predicted by the theory. A discussion of the relevant literature is included as well as possible explanations of the results, small sample size, and implications for future research.
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Family Influences on Young Adult Career Development and Aspirations

Family Influences on Young Adult Career Development and Aspirations

Date: December 2006
Creator: Bergen, Rebecca June-Schapeler
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine family influences on career development and aspirations of young adults. Theories and research have examined the influence parents have on children's career development, but because of the multiple factors that influence career choices, understanding the family's influence is complex. The current study utilized ideas from self-determination, attachment, and career development theories to develop a framework for understanding how families influence young adult career development and aspirations. Rather than directly influencing career decisions, the family was proposed to influence processes within individuals that directly influence successful career development. This study used hierarchical regression analyses to test whether different aspects of family relationships and the family environment affect processes within young people, which in turn influence career development. A sample of 99 female and 34 male undergraduate students between 18 and 20 (mean age 18.67) completed questionnaires. Results support the idea that different aspects of the family influence diverse factors of career development and future aspirations. The achievement orientation of the family was predictive of career salience and extrinsic aspirations. Conflict with mothers was predictive of career salience, yet support and depth in the relationship with mothers and low amounts of conflict in the ...
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Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Clarke, Shailagh
Description: The present study examined the use of MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument with a younger and older adult sample. Specifically, MacDonald's proposed five factor model was assessed for fit with a sample of college age participants as well as a sample of adults over the age of 65. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit of this model with samples, and this was followed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the results were considered in light of measurement equivalence and the definitions of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. Further analyses examined levels of religiousness as well as relationships between religiousness/spirituality and potential correlates, such as postformal thinking, life events including changes and losses, emotional and physical well-being, and family upbringing, comparing young and older adult samples. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a solution with a better fit than MacDonald's model for both younger and older adults. While the number of factors were the same for both samples, item loadings and cross-loadings differed between the younger and older adult samples. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four factor solution, with religiousness and spirituality items loading onto one factor. With regard to measurement equivalence, findings appear to ...
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Body Image as Mediated by Age, Sex, and Relationship Status

Body Image as Mediated by Age, Sex, and Relationship Status

Date: December 1993
Creator: Cooper, Caren C. (Caren Connie)
Description: Traditionally, body image research has focused on young women. However, there are indications of cultural shifts which extend physical appearance pressures to both men and women, as well as to middle-aged and older adults. Two hundred and ten subjects were administered objective body image measures including the Figure Rating Scale, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, as well as projective measures including the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Draw-A-Person. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Social Anxiety Subscale were also used to explore variables which might covary with body image. A 3 X 2 X 2 Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was utilized with social desirability as the covariate.
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Adolescent Behavior Problems and Interparental Conflict: the Moderating Role of Parent-child Attachment

Adolescent Behavior Problems and Interparental Conflict: the Moderating Role of Parent-child Attachment

Date: December 2013
Creator: Daubs, Carlyn
Description: The current study examined the role that parent-child attachment plays in the relationship between marital conflict and the development of behavior problems in adolescents. To evaluate the hypothesis that attachment moderates this relationship, 57 families were recruited via e-mail invitation sent to families that participated in local church youth groups, school organizations, and a treatment program designed for adolescents with behavior problems. One custodial parent and his/her adolescent child completed an online or paper version of a survey consisting of the Achenbach’s Behavior Checklists, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, and the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale. Hypotheses were evaluated using Baron and Kenny’s (1986) procedures to test moderating effects with multiple regression analyses. Mother attachment demonstrated a significant moderation effect between the intensity of interparental conflict and the parent’s report of externalizing behavior problems. Specifically, at low conflict intensity levels, relative to low attachment security, high attachment security was associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas at high intensities of interparental conflict high attachment security was associated with more externalizing behavior problems.
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Gender Differences in Narrative Descriptions of Date Rape

Gender Differences in Narrative Descriptions of Date Rape

Date: August 1994
Creator: Wade, John Charles
Description: This study was conducted to examine the experience of unwanted sexual aggression from both the male and female perspectives. Questionnaires were distributed to 325 students, and of these, 142 wrote free-response narratives describing their most sexually aggressive experience. Two raters scored and analyzed the narratives on the basis of 19 categories for male responses and 16 categories for female responses. Differences between the male and female perception of the experience of unwanted sexual aggression were found on several categories. The results of this study suggest that date rape awareness and prevention programs should emphasize the point that dating and sexual encounters can easily be fraught with miscommunication and misinterpretation, and encourage clearer communication and better understanding.
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Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help in Younger and Older Adults

Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help in Younger and Older Adults

Date: December 1993
Creator: Gray, Gale René, 1958-
Description: The major purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized structural model that included many of the variables that have been found to influence people's attitudes toward seeking psychological help and investigate if these variables and their inter-relationships are different for young versus older adults. This study offers a more comprehensive investigation than previous research by testing and modifying two structural models of help-seeking attitudes, one for young adults and one for older adults. This makes it possible to examine how these variables differ for the two age groups.
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College Students at Risk of Academic Failure: Neurocognitive Strengths and Weaknesses

College Students at Risk of Academic Failure: Neurocognitive Strengths and Weaknesses

Date: December 1995
Creator: Saine, Kathleen C. (Kathleen Chen)
Description: This study examined the neurocognitive skills, incidence of mild head injury, incidence of learning disabilities, and study habits among college students with grade point average of 2.00 or below (N = 25) as contrasted with college students with grade point average above 2.00 (N = 70). The intent of this research was to extend the work of Segalowitz and Brown (1991) and Segalowitz and Lawson (1993) who found significant associations between reported history of mild head injury and developmental disabilities among high school and college samples. MANOVAs conducted on measures of academic achievement, global cognitive skills, verbal and nonverbal memory, motor and tactile functioning, and study habits did not discriminate between probationary and non-probationary students. Probationary and non-probationary students also did not differ with regard to incidence of reported head injury, frequency of diagnosed learning disabilities, and study habits. Measures of neurocognitive functioning and study habits did not contribute to the prediction of grade point average over and above that predicted by Scholastic Aptitude Test composite score. Several exploratory analyses were performed examining the relationship between study habits and neurocognitive skills. Gender differences, implications for future research and development of study skills courses, and limitations of this study were discussed.
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Family Interaction Patterns, Child Attachment, and Child Emotional Adjustment

Family Interaction Patterns, Child Attachment, and Child Emotional Adjustment

Date: August 2014
Creator: Demby, Kimberly P.
Description: The present study examined the links between whole family interaction patterns, parent-child attachment, and child emotional adjustment in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Target children completed the Children’s Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005), and the Behavior Assessment System for Children- 2nd Edition, Self Report of Personality (BASC-2 SRP; Reynolds &Kamphaus, 2004). Results of hierarchical regressions indicated that Secure and Avoidant attachment each independently predicted children’s emotional symptoms in some models. Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children’s emotional symptoms. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and treating children’s emotional outcomes.
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The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille
Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects ...
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Historical Changes in Elderly Cohorts' Attitudes toward Mental Health Services

Historical Changes in Elderly Cohorts' Attitudes toward Mental Health Services

Date: August 2001
Creator: Currin, James B.
Description: Older adults' attitudes toward mental health services have received little research attention. Overall, older adults are thought to hold relatively negative attitudes. In this study, Analysis 1 investigated historical shifts in attitudes toward mental health services among three independent samples of older adults, separated by 14-year and 9-year intervals (1977 sample, N = 90; 1991 sample, N = 101; 2000 sample, N = 99). Analysis 2 compared two samples of older and younger adults, each separated by a 9-year interval (Older Adults: 1991 sample, N = 93; 2000 sample, N = 91 and Younger Adults: 1991 sample, N = 131; 2000 sample, N = 147). Participants completed a questionnaire containing five, internally consistent scales assessing multiple dimensions of mental health attitudes (Openness, Biases, Range of Knowledge, Breadth, Help Seeking Attitudes). Analyses suggested that the 1991 and 2000 samples of older adults had more positive attitudes than did the 1977 sample. However, a sustained trend for more positive attitudes beyond 1991 was not seen. In fact, no differences existed between 1991 and 2000 samples with exception of two. Older and younger adults together had lower Biases and Breadth scores in 2000 than in 1991. Age effects, gender effects, and interactions were ...
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The Relationship of Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Self-Concept to the Adjustment of First-Year College Students

The Relationship of Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Self-Concept to the Adjustment of First-Year College Students

Date: August 2000
Creator: Selby, Jeanne Costello
Description: The transition to college is usually the first time many late adolescents live apart from their parents for an extended period, making it an important developmental task (Kenny, 1987) that requires a variety of adaptational resources. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980) attachment theory has been refined by Kenny and Rice (1995) to explain how internal working models of late adolescents are the bases of the adaptational resources that determine the quality of adjustment to college. The Kenny and Rice model may be interpreted to suggest that external resources should include relationships with parents and friends, while internal resources can include self-concept. According to the authors, "these resources are assumed to moderate or buffer the effects of developmental challenges and stressful events on adjustment" (p.437). The purpose of the present study was to extend and further clarify the ways that quality attachment relationships and positive self-concept conjointly may promote healthy adaptation in the college milieu. In particular, the present study examined the influence of self-concept as a mediating variable with respect to attachment and healthy adjustment to college. Students from Freshman Psychology classes completed measures to assess their attachment relationships with each parent, their attachment relationships with peers, their level of self-concept, ...
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How Much Do Self-Disclosers Reveal to Professional Groups?

How Much Do Self-Disclosers Reveal to Professional Groups?

Date: December 1976
Creator: Lankford, Charles P.
Description: Previous studies of help-givers have stressed subjects' perceptions using nine generic problem areas and a list of 100 descriptive adjectives. The present study attempted to specify major personality variables entering into subjects' perceptions of adviser, high school counselor, college counselor, counseling psychologist, clinical psychologist, and psychiatrist. The personality variables of self-disclosure and risk were studied, as well as a comparison using the 100 descriptive adjectives. The results from 217 female undergraduate college students indicated that subjects revealed risky information to help-givers in the same manner that they tended to self-disclose. Findings also revealed that subjects tended to differentiate among help-givers in reference to the extent that they were willing to reveal risky information. Favorable findings with reference to validity for the Norton risk scale are discussed, as are discrepancies between descriptions of help-givers in the current study as opposed to descriptions of the same help-givers in previous studies.
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Attitudes Toward Psychodiagnostic Testing and Doctoral Clinical Psychology Students' Professional Expectations and Training

Attitudes Toward Psychodiagnostic Testing and Doctoral Clinical Psychology Students' Professional Expectations and Training

Date: August 1976
Creator: Steele, J. Richard
Description: Responses of 111 doctoral clinical psychology students to Garfield and Kurtz' (1973) Testing Attitude Scale were subjected to a 2 x 2 factorial analysis. Attitudes toward psychodiagnostic testing were found to be related both to academic versus nonacademic professional expectations (academics scoring more negatively, M = 32.69, than nonacademics, M = 37.19), F (1, 107) = 5.994, p < 0.016, and to internship training exposure (non-interns scoring more negatively, M = 34.64, than interns, M = 38.80), F (1, 107) = 10.321, p< 0.002. Results paralleled previous research on academic and nonacademic working psychologists' attitudes. Similarities in students' and role models' attitudes were discussed in terms of Kelman's (1953; 1958), Festinger's (1957), and Bem's (1970) attitude theories. Results seemed to imply continued controversy over both the desirability of producing psychodiagnostically oriented clinicians, and also traditional paradigms of psychodiagnostic training.
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Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Personality Characteristics and Comorbidity

Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Personality Characteristics and Comorbidity

Date: August 1998
Creator: Austin, Karla Michele
Description: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is surrounded by confusion and controversy regarding its definition, course, etiology and treatment. Among adults, ADHD is rarely considered a diagnostic reality of primary importance and is often overlooked. This study provides descriptive validity for adult ADHD in distinguishing it from controls, and identifying both a pure condition and one wrought with comorbidity.
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Organizational Support Systems for Team-Based Organizations: Employee Collaboration through Organizational Structures

Organizational Support Systems for Team-Based Organizations: Employee Collaboration through Organizational Structures

Date: August 1998
Creator: Hall, Christopher Aaron, 1964-
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between organizational support and Effectiveness, Empowerment, and team characteristics. Support was operationalized by nine systems: Executive Management, Direct Supervision, Group Design, Performance Definition, Performance Review, Training, Rewards, Information, and Integration. Support was rated in two ways: how important is support for performing work (Importance scales), and how does support describe work environments (Presence scales).
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External and Internal Influences on Congruence Between Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

External and Internal Influences on Congruence Between Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

Date: December 1997
Creator: Brewer, Laura C. (Laura Catherine)
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses that the external factors of family environment, gender, and clinical status and the internal factors of self-esteem and impression management would have either a positive influence or a negative influence on individuals' congruence between their sexual attitudes and their sexual behavior. The hypotheses that the external and internal factors would be significant predictors of congruence between sexual attitudes and behavior were not supported by regression analyses. Clinical status and impression management were significant predictors of congruence but in the opposite direction than hypothesized. When age was factored out of the regression equation, clinical status was no longer a significant predictor of congruence. However, impression management remained a significant predictor of congruence.
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Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community Sample of Women: Examination of the Role of Violence and Ethnicity

Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community Sample of Women: Examination of the Role of Violence and Ethnicity

Date: August 1998
Creator: Vogel, Laura C. M.
Description: The purpose of the current study was to examine Dutton's (1992) model of moderating and mediating variables which may impact the relationship of violence from an intimate partner with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This model was tested within three ethnic groups (African American, n = 303, Euro-American, n = 271, and Mexican American, n = 260), of low income, community women in serious, long-term relationships. The importance of the differences and similarities observed are discussed within a framework of the PTSD as well as domestic violence literature.
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Parenting Stress in Mexican American and Caucasian Parents of Children with ADHD

Parenting Stress in Mexican American and Caucasian Parents of Children with ADHD

Date: August 1998
Creator: Cleveland, Jennifer
Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences exist between reports of parental stress in Mexican American and Caucasian mothers of children with ADHD. A second purpose was to examine whether there were child and family characteristics that made unique contributions to levels of parenting stress in Mexican American parents of children with ADHD. A third purpose was to examine the role that level of acculturation plays in the Mexican American mothers' reports of stress. Dependent measures used in this study include the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
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