Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: July 21, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report discusses how U.S. policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) is developed and implemented in the executive branch and the agencies that are involved. It also analyzes the three main sources of congressional influence--legislative authority, the power of the purse, and oversight activities-- on U.S. policy towards the development banks. Finally, it examines the levels of funding Congress has approved for MDBs, budgetary issues and the policy directives that Congress has initiated over the years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Date: February 3, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report provides information on the role the IMF has played in the financial crisis, international agreement to increase the financial resources of the IMF, and the role of Congress in increasing the Fund's resources. As will be discussed in detail at the end of the report, congressional authorization, and perhaps appropriation, would be required to increase U.S. contributions to the IMF.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report analyzes how the United States makes policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and identifies ways by which Congress can shape U.S. policy and influence the activities of the banks themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets

IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets

Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This paper shows how much the United States has contributed to these international agencies in recent years. It also shows how much the international agencies budget (and the source of those funds) for their administrative expenses and their operational budgets. This report will be updated periodically.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This report provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Honduras. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: In the past three years, the Administration has moved to substantially increase U.S. aid levels for Guatemala from $18.3 million in FY84 to a proposed $149.7 million in FY88. Budgetary limits on the overall size of the U.S. foreign aid program may cause reductions in the proposed 1988 levels, however, independent of any choices related to the Guatemalan, situation. This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Guatemala. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

Date: June 3, 2003
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report discusses the government of Iraq and its active role in stimulating and directing the Iraqi economy.This report identifies issues to be addressed before Iraq can participate normally in the world economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Developing Countries: Definitions, Concepts and Comparisons

Developing Countries: Definitions, Concepts and Comparisons

Date: December 6, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E. & Sandhu, Anjula
Description: This report examines four criteria which are often used today to rank and assess countries’ levels of development. They are: (1) per capita income; (2) economic and social structure; (3) social conditions; and (4) the prevailing level of economic and political freedom. Specific indices or quantitative studies are explained and applied to each criteria and the differences among the various measures are explained.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and other countries have expressed considerable concern that China’s national currency (the yuan or renminbi) is seriously undervalued. Some analysts say the yuan needs to rise by as much as 40% in order to reflect its equilibrium value. Critics say that China’s undervalued currency provides it with an unfair trade advantage that has seriously injured the manufacturing sector in the United States. Chinese officials counter that they have not pegged the yuan to the dollar in order to gain trade advantages. Rather, they say the fixed rate promotes economic stability that is vital for the functioning of its domestic economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Current Authorization Requests

Multilateral Development Banks: Current Authorization Requests

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Financial Institutions:  Funding U.S. Participation

International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Procedures for U.S. Participation

Multilateral Development Banks: Procedures for U.S. Participation

Date: January 22, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1990-2002

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1990-2002

Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background

Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background

Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Caribbean Basin Initiative

Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: September 19, 1983
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: The Reagan Administration has proposed legislation which would seek to use trade and aid to promote political stability and economic growth in the Caribbean Basin region. Among other things, it would create a one-way free trade zone, where the small nations of the region would have an opportunity for export-led growth through duty-free access to the U.S. market. It would also provide $350 million in economic aid for 1982 to El Salvador and other Caribbean countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costa Rica: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Costa Rica: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Costa Rica. It is one in a series on U.S. assistance to key countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: May 8, 2008
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) approach the issue of "currency manipulation" differently. The IMF Articles of Agreement prohibit countries from manipulating their currency for the purpose of gaining unfair trade advantage, but the IMF cannot force a country to change its exchange rate policies. The WTO has rules against subsidies, but these are very narrow and specific and do not seem to encompass currency manipulation. Several options might be considered for addressing this matter in the future, if policymakers deem this a wise course of action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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